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FORMATION, MAINTENANCE AND BREAKDOWN





Formation
of
relationships

· Reward
theories

- Attracted
to
an
individuals
presence
that
is
rewarding
to
us.
Factors
that
influence
initial
attraction
=
proximity,

exposure
and
familiarity,
similarity
and
physical
attractiveness.

- Proximity
­
digital
communication,
only
applies
to
the
real
world.

- Exposure
­
The…

Page 2

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Evaluation
of
the
reward/need
theory

o Lots
of
evidence
to
support
that
meeting
needs
is
important.
(Smith
and
Mackie).

o O'Connor
and
Rosneblood
­
Social
Affiliation
Model,
each
individual
has
an
optimum
level
of
social
contact.

Students
differ
in
their
need
for
affiliation,
some
demanding
lots
of
social
contact
and…

Page 3

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o Hetrosexual
bias,
mainly
white
and
middle
class
too
­
may
not
explain
other
group's
behaviour.

o Gender
differences:
Women
are
more
likely
to
stress
the
unhappiness.

o Takes
the
social
contact
into
account
as
well
as
the
individuals.

Page 4

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SEXUAL SELECTION AND HUMAN
REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOUR
- Cunningham
­
men
most
attracted
to
features
associated
with
young
children.
Waynforth
­
masculine
features

and
symmetrical
face
were
preferred.
Langlois:
meta
analysis,
agreement
within
cultures
as
to
who
was
attractive

and
who
was
not.



Partner
selection

- Dunbar
and
Wanforth:
Newspaper,
analyzed…

Page 5

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o Helps
us
understand
mate
preferences;
women
seek
men
with
good
genes
and
are
likely
to
care
for
the
baby.

Shows
us
why
male's
desire
more
partners
and
seek
short-term
sexual
relationships,
as
it
requires
little
time
and

effort.

o Sexual
jealousy:
men
become
distressed
as
may
end
up
in…

Page 6

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INFLUENCE OF EARLY EXPERIENCE AND CULTURE
The
continuity
hypothesis

- Bowlby;
early
relationship
experiences
continue
and
effect
adult
later
relationships.
Develops
from
IWM.
Young

children
develop
attachment
styles;
a
characteristic
way
of
behaving.
Ainsworth,
Bell
and
Staydon
-
Secure
(B),

Insecure
avoidant
(A)
and
insecure
ambivalent
(C).



· Continuities
to…

Page 7

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- Culture:
a
set
of
cognitions
and
practices
that
identify
a
specific
social
group
and
distinguish
against
others.
­

Hogg
and
Vaughan.

- Objective
(food,
clothes
etc.)
and
subjective
(beliefs
etc.).



The
psychology
of
arranged
marriages

- ¼
marriages
in
Japan
(Iwao).

- Batabyal,
reviews
into
the
process
involved
in…

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