psya3 condense revision notes - relationships

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FORMATION, MAINTENANCE AND BREAKDOWN
Formation
of
relationships
· Reward
theories
- Attracted
to
an
individuals
presence
that
is
rewarding
to
us.
Factors
that
influence
initial
attraction
=
proximity,
exposure
and
familiarity,
similarity
and
physical
attractiveness.
- Proximity
­
digital
communication,
only
applies
to
the
real
world.
- Exposure
­
The
more
people
interact,
the
more
polarized
their
attitudes
become
(Argyle).
Saegert
­
the
more
time
spent
with
each
other,
the
greater
the
attraction.
Evaluation
of
the
Reward
theory
o SoA:
Rubin
­
enjoyment
because
allows
couple
to
participate
in
a
joint
activity.
o SoA:
Byrne
­
``the
law
of
attraction''
=
how
much
we
like
someone
related
to
similarity
of
a.
Sing
and
Ho
­
differences
can
also
lead
us
to
dislike
people.
o PA:
Murstein
­
match
hypothesis:
look
for
someone
who
is
similar
attractiveness,
99
couples
dating,
compared
with
randomly
paired
couples.
o Does
not
take
into
account
gender/cultural
factors
-
assumes
that
relationships
are
the
same
for
everybody.
o May
have
missed
factors,
and
factors
aren't
coherent,
several
unrelated
factors.
Overlook's
our
familiarity
is
operationalised,
could
be
other
factors
e.g.
how
much
you
learn
about
the
person.
o Lack
of
mundane
realism,
lab
studies
in
this
area.
· Filter
Model:
Kerckhoff
and
Davis
1962.
- Longitudinal
study,
student
couples
for
18
months.
Q's
for
a
7
month
period
on
attitude
and
personality
similarities.
Attitude
most
important
up
to
18
months
then
needs
more
important.
- Field
of
availables
filtered
into
field
of
desirables.
3
filters:
1. Social/Demographic
values:
individual
characteristics
play
a
big
role.
2. Attitude
and
value
similarity:
more
communication
if
similar.
3. Needs:
how
well
partner
meets
emotional
needs.
Evaluation
of
the
filter
model
o Sprecher
also
found
that
couples
matched
to
these
factors
=
more
likely
to
develop
a
ltr.
o May
be
other
factors
and
individual
differences
-
stages
fail
to
capture
a
relationships
fluid
and
dynamic
nature.n
Maintenance
of
relationships
· Reward/Need
theories
- Long-term
relationship
more
likely
if
needs
of
the
partners
are
met
and
rewards
provided.
- Bryne
(1971)
claimed
that
classical
conditioning
also
plays
an
important
role
in
determining
the
effects
of
reinforcement
in
relationships.
He
found
that
positive
feelings
are
created
when
people
express
similar
attitudes
to
ours,
or
vice
versa.
- Self-disclosure:
relationship
becomes
deep
and
personal,
rewarding
to
trust
each
other.
Self-disclosure
is
regulated
by
norms
relating
to
when
information
should
be
revealed,
what
to
tell
etc.
(Duck
and
Miell)

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Evaluation
of
the
reward/need
theory
o Lots
of
evidence
to
support
that
meeting
needs
is
important.
(Smith
and
Mackie).
o O'Connor
and
Rosneblood
­
Social
Affiliation
Model,
each
individual
has
an
optimum
level
of
social
contact.
Students
differ
in
their
need
for
affiliation,
some
demanding
lots
of
social
contact
and
others
happier
on
their
own.
o Acknowledges
that
needs
are
personal
to
individuals.
o Culture
­
doesn't
consider
arranged
marriages,
context
(i.e.
computers).
Non-western
relationships
often
show
little
need
for
re-enforcements.…read more

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Hetrosexual
bias,
mainly
white
and
middle
class
too
­
may
not
explain
other
group's
behaviour.
o Gender
differences:
Women
are
more
likely
to
stress
the
unhappiness.
o Takes
the
social
contact
into
account
as
well
as
the
individuals.…read more

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SEXUAL SELECTION AND HUMAN
REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOUR
- Cunningham
­
men
most
attracted
to
features
associated
with
young
children.
Waynforth
­
masculine
features
and
symmetrical
face
were
preferred.
Langlois:
meta
analysis,
agreement
within
cultures
as
to
who
was
attractive
and
who
was
not.
Partner
selection
- Dunbar
and
Wanforth:
Newspaper,
analyzed
900
adverts.
Younger
partner
important
for
42%
of
men,
and
only
a
¼
of
women.
- Buss
-
cultural
differences.
He
looked
at
partner
preferences
from
33
countries.…read more

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Helps
us
understand
mate
preferences;
women
seek
men
with
good
genes
and
are
likely
to
care
for
the
baby.
Shows
us
why
male's
desire
more
partners
and
seek
short-term
sexual
relationships,
as
it
requires
little
time
and
effort.
o Sexual
jealousy:
men
become
distressed
as
may
end
up
in
investing
babies
that
are
not
theirs.
o Buss
and
others
mate
preference
studies
are
done
in
the
modern
day,
providing
relevant
evidence
on
evolutionary
explanations.…read more

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INFLUENCE OF EARLY EXPERIENCE AND CULTURE
The
continuity
hypothesis
- Bowlby;
early
relationship
experiences
continue
and
effect
adult
later
relationships.
Develops
from
IWM.
Young
children
develop
attachment
styles;
a
characteristic
way
of
behaving.
Ainsworth,
Bell
and
Staydon
-
Secure
(B),
Insecure
avoidant
(A)
and
insecure
ambivalent
(C).
· Continuities
to
adult
relationships
- Dunphy
(1963)
Series
of
observational
studies
high
school
in
Australia.
Two
types
of
social
group:
the
clique
(same
sex
of
4-6
people
aged
12-14.…read more

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Culture:
a
set
of
cognitions
and
practices
that
identify
a
specific
social
group
and
distinguish
against
others.
­
Hogg
and
Vaughan.
- Objective
(food,
clothes
etc.)
and
subjective
(beliefs
etc.).
The
psychology
of
arranged
marriages
- ¼
marriages
in
Japan
(Iwao).
- Batabyal,
reviews
into
the
process
involved
in
arranged
marriages.
Young
people
are
unlikely
to
make
the
right
choice,
more
likely
to
go
on
the
basis
of
attraction.
Decisions
are
made
by
`well
wishers'.…read more

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