Gender PSYA3 - complete revision notes

HideShow resource information
Preview of Gender PSYA3 - complete revision notes

First 100 words of the document:

AQA Psychology Unit 3 Tabassum Ajmal
Gender
The role of genes and hormones
Evolutionary explanations of gender roles
The biosocial approach to gender development
Gender dysphoria
Kohlberg's cognitive developmental theory
Gender schema theory
Social influence on gender roles
Cultural influences on gender roles
KEY
AO1
AO2 ­ SUPPORT
A02 ­ AGAINST
HOWEVER (in the middle of a paragraph) ­ Direct AO2
IDA
CASE STUDIES
These notes are based on the information from `Psychology A2 ­ the complete companion student
book ­ third edition'.
Page 1 | 22

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

AQA Psychology Unit 3 Tabassum Ajmal
The role of genes and hormones
The role of genes in gender development
Each person has 23 pairs of chromosomes which carry genes. Amongst these are sex chromosomes
which determine an individual's sex. Males = XY and females = XX. There is usually a link between an
individual's chromosomal sex and internal/external genitalia. The first few weeks after conception,
male and female embryos look externally feminine. If the foetus is male, testosterone causes male
genitalia to develop.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

AQA Psychology Unit 3 Tabassum Ajmal
Brain development ­ sex differences explained
Male and female brains are different e.g. girls are better with social skills whilst boys are more
talkative. GESHWIND AND GALABURDA = the sex differences were due to the effects of
testosterone on the brain (whilst developing). More testosterone = more masculinised brain, this
explains tomboys.
The importance of genetic factors
MONEY AND ERHARDT ­ aimed to prove that biological sex was not the main factor to determine an
individual's gender.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

AQA Psychology Unit 3 Tabassum Ajmal
Cannot generalize the findings on to the wider population, intersexes are more vulnerable to social
influences.
Real world application
Genetic sex no longer determines gender. Males = XY and female = XX but doesn't make a difference
(transgender are now more accepted).…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

AQA Psychology Unit 3 Tabassum Ajmal
Evolutionary explanations of gender roles
EEA
Era of evolutionary adaptation = when species adapt.
Division of labour
Man = hunter and woman = gatherer/domestic. If the women hunted then this would reduce the
group's reproductive success. This division of labour is an adaptive advantage. KUHN AND STINER ­
this division of labour is why humans survived and Neanderthals went extinct. Neanderthals evolved
into Homo sapiens (humans).…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

AQA Psychology Unit 3 Tabassum Ajmal
Research support ­ mate choice
WAYNFORTH AND DUNBAR ­ personal ads found that 44% of males sought attractiveness whereas
22% of women did, also 50% of women OFFERED attractiveness.
Research support ­ tend and befriend
ENNIS ET AL ­ natural experiment, took cortisol levels a week before student exams and another
sample immediately before, there were increased levels of cortisol in males but decreased level in
females, this shows that women respond differently to men.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

AQA Psychology Unit 3 Tabassum Ajmal
Determinism
Only genes determine how an individual behaves. The evolutionary approach does not consider free
will and that it is out of our own free will that we choose how to behave.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

AQA Psychology Unit 3 Tabassum Ajmal
The biosocial approach to gender development
Biosocial theory ­ MONEY AND ERHARDT
MONEY AND ERHARDT ­ once a biological male or female is born, social labelling and differential
treatment of boys and girls interact with biological factors.…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

AQA Psychology Unit 3 Tabassum Ajmal
Biosocial theory ­ lack of evidence
MONEY AND ERHARDT ­ aimed to prove that social upbringing was the key to gender identity but
David Reimer always felt like a boy and later on he became a boy again.
Biosocial theory ­ sample bias
They tried other studies to back up their research, but it was still unrepresentative because they
were only done on abnormal individuals.…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

AQA Psychology Unit 3 Tabassum Ajmal
Gender dysphoria
Psychosocial explanations ­ mental illness
Psychologists suggest that gender dysphoria is due to mental illness (childhood trauma or
maladaptive upbringing). COATES ET AL ­ a boy developed GID as a defence mechanism in reaction
to his mothers' depression following an abortion. The trauma may have led to a cross gendered
fantasy as a means of resolving the ensuing issue.
Psychosocial explanations ­ mother-son relationships
STOLLER ET AL ­ GID resulted in distorted (messed up) parent attitudes.…read more

Comments

Mephestic

Psya3 gender essays are available here too if needed as well as all the other psya3 and psya4 essays here.

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all resources »