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AQA Psychology Unit 3 Tabassum Ajmal




Gender

The role of genes and hormones

Evolutionary explanations of gender roles

The biosocial approach to gender development

Gender dysphoria

Kohlberg's cognitive developmental theory

Gender schema theory

Social influence on gender roles

Cultural influences on gender roles



KEY
AO1

AO2 ­ SUPPORT

A02 ­…

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AQA Psychology Unit 3 Tabassum Ajmal




The role of genes and hormones

The role of genes in gender development
Each person has 23 pairs of chromosomes which carry genes. Amongst these are sex chromosomes
which determine an individual's sex. Males = XY and females = XX. There is usually a…

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AQA Psychology Unit 3 Tabassum Ajmal




Brain development ­ sex differences explained
Male and female brains are different e.g. girls are better with social skills whilst boys are more
talkative. GESHWIND AND GALABURDA = the sex differences were due to the effects of
testosterone on the brain (whilst developing). More…

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AQA Psychology Unit 3 Tabassum Ajmal




Cannot generalize the findings on to the wider population, intersexes are more vulnerable to social
influences.



Real world application
Genetic sex no longer determines gender. Males = XY and female = XX but doesn't make a difference
(transgender are now more accepted).




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Page 5

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AQA Psychology Unit 3 Tabassum Ajmal




Evolutionary explanations of gender roles

EEA
Era of evolutionary adaptation = when species adapt.



Division of labour
Man = hunter and woman = gatherer/domestic. If the women hunted then this would reduce the
group's reproductive success. This division of labour is an adaptive advantage.…

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AQA Psychology Unit 3 Tabassum Ajmal




Research support ­ mate choice
WAYNFORTH AND DUNBAR ­ personal ads found that 44% of males sought attractiveness whereas
22% of women did, also 50% of women OFFERED attractiveness.



Research support ­ tend and befriend
ENNIS ET AL ­ natural experiment, took cortisol levels…

Page 7

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AQA Psychology Unit 3 Tabassum Ajmal




Determinism
Only genes determine how an individual behaves. The evolutionary approach does not consider free
will and that it is out of our own free will that we choose how to behave.




Page 7 | 22

Page 8

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AQA Psychology Unit 3 Tabassum Ajmal




The biosocial approach to gender development

Biosocial theory ­ MONEY AND ERHARDT
MONEY AND ERHARDT ­ once a biological male or female is born, social labelling and differential
treatment of boys and girls interact with biological factors. They predicted that if a male (genetic…

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AQA Psychology Unit 3 Tabassum Ajmal




Biosocial theory ­ lack of evidence
MONEY AND ERHARDT ­ aimed to prove that social upbringing was the key to gender identity but
David Reimer always felt like a boy and later on he became a boy again.



Biosocial theory ­ sample bias
They…

Page 10

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AQA Psychology Unit 3 Tabassum Ajmal




Gender dysphoria

Psychosocial explanations ­ mental illness
Psychologists suggest that gender dysphoria is due to mental illness (childhood trauma or
maladaptive upbringing). COATES ET AL ­ a boy developed GID as a defence mechanism in reaction
to his mothers' depression following an abortion. The…

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