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Theories of Intelligence
The Psychometric Approach
Believe intelligence is a measurable thing
Assumes intelligence stays the same across time in individuals
Intelligence varies between individuals
"Spearman" The Two Factor Theory of Intelligence.
Specific Abilities (s) vs. General Intelligence (g).
The better you are at certain things (i.e Maths) then the better the general intelligence. Spearman argues
that there is ONE general intelligence
Research Support: "Duncan" used PET scans and found that the same frontal lobes were activated
when going general intelligence (g) test. This suggests that there is one general intelligence as the same
area has been activated. Different intelligence tasks, different area of the brain.
General intelligence is an abstract concept
Only evidence is correlational. Correlation not cause
Underestimates the complexity of cognitive changes throughout lifespan
"Cattel" Gc/Gf Theory
Gc, crystalised intelligence which is factual thinking (e.g. 4x4=16). Tends to rise over the years
Gf, fluid intelligence which is the ability to problem solve. "Stankov" as we age Gf usually falls.
The better the Gc the better the Gf (investment theory)
Alternative Approach "Guildford"
Rejects the idea of (g) altogether
Intelligence instead is the result of 150 independent abilities.
Abilities generalised to 3 areas
1. Memory (content)
2. Contents (visual/auditory)
(+) We aren't all good at everything so supports the idea of 150 different abilities
(+) First to recognise the importance of empirical testing
Evaluation of all:
IQ tests are assumed as the only form of measuring intelligence, IQ tests are westernised
"Gardner" Multiple Intelligence Theory
Evolutionary would say intelligence is adaptive
Gender Beta Bias men and women the same?
IQ tests are seen to only test what people have been exposed to. Kenya!
"Yerkes" gave IQ test to white undergraduates and black immigrants. White cleverer. This is
due to exposure. ETHICS
Descriptive not predictive. Individual Differences.
Reductionistic, doesn't consider socioeconomic factors. Intelligence inherited?
Deterministic, have good Gc lead to good Gf. Intelligence then fixed?