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Media Influences on Prosocial Behaviour
Explanations of Media Effects
Observational Learning
Children observe the actions of media models and then may imitate these behaviours, especially if they
admire the model. Television may also show the positive consequences of prosocial behaviour e.g. receiving
praise. The more real they perceive the scenes…

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(+) (Huesmann et al.,2003) In a longitudinal study, found that the more a person had identified with
samesex violent models e.g. The Six Million Dollar Man or The Bionic Woman in childhood, the more likely
they were to be rated as aggressive by people who knew them well as an…

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The positive and negative effects of computers and behaviours
Negative Effects
Lab experiments have found shortterm increases in levels of physiological arousal, hostile feelings and
aggressive behaviour following violent game play compared to nonviolent game play.
(Anderson and Dill, 2000) found that participants blasted their opponents with white noise for…

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nothing. Those who had interacted on their facebook page gave much more positive feedback about themselves
than the other two groups.
(+) Hyperpersonal Model (Walther, 1996) selfselection of the information we choose to represent ourselves
can have a positive influence on selfesteem. Computer mediated communication offers people such an

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Depends on whether the audience is likely to focus on the message itself or on other factors such as credibility
and attractiveness of source.
The central route
Taken when the audience is likely to focus on the strength of the arguments presented. Cacioppo and
Petty (1982) some people enjoy…

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It is commonly believed that parasocial relationship with celebrities are dysfunctional. However, research
does not support this.

The 'AbsorptionAddiction model'
Argues that people pursue parasocial relationships due to deficits or lacks within their real life. These
relationships are seen as an attempt to cope or escape from reality.
the motivational…

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Found no relationships between insecure attachment and the tendency to form parasocial relationships with
celebs. However, They found those with insecure attachment styles were more likely to think stalking was
acceptable, and there was a relationship between pathological attachment and the tendency to stalk.
(+) Researchers used counterbalancing to control…

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(Maltby et al., 2001) Scores on the entertainmentsocial level predicted social dysfunction and scores on
the intensepersonal level predicted depression and anxiety. Celebrity worship is a behavioural representation of
poor psychological wellbeing
(Cheung and Yue, 2003) found `Idol worship' was associated with lower levels of work or study, lower self…

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Most victims reported changing lifestyle after being stalked, and described various physical and mental
responses to being stalked.

Attachment style
(Bartholomew and Horowitz, 1991) proposed that individuals with the 'preoccupied' attachment style have a
poor selfimage and a positive image of others, because of this, such individuals actively seek approval…




This is so useful, thanks Laura!

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