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Building Blocks ­ Plato and Aristotle
Philosophy ­ Phileow (Greek for friendship love), Sophos (Greek for wisdom), therefore in its most
basic form philosophy means: `The Love of Wisdom'.

Plato was the pupil of Socrates and later Aristotle became the pupil of Plato. Socrates was known
as the `wisest of…

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`The charioteer and the two horses' whereby the two horses (body and soul) have to be led in
harmony through life.

Plato believed that the world in which we live is a form of virtual reality, in that truth is what appears
to us ­ an illusion. It is the…

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The shadows ­ the games created by the puppeteers to manipulate the lives of the prisoners
The ascent ­ the journey into wisdom is not easy and one with which you will want to do. It will be
uncomfortable at times as it will take you out of your…

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Plato would argue that certain characteristics are innate (we are born with them), like the
recognition of beauty (e.g. all babies will express fundamental emotions on their faces etc. Are they
just instinctive or genetic?) He argued that we have this `sense' from the World of Forms, which is

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Can every physical thing have an ideal Form? Can you have a Form of a cat and a human? If so
what would it be like, a `humat'?
Our senses work, why should they be inferior?
How does the World of Forms actually relate to the `World of Appearances'?


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Potentiality ­ when something contains the ingredients to become something else, or what can be
possibly achieved (I have a target minimum grade of a C, but potentially can achieve a B)
Actuality ­ when an object fulfils it potential and becomes something else, or when what was
possible to…

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How can a God be so powerful and not know of it?
How can matter come from thought alone?
Does there have to be a reason for the existence of the universe? It could just be!
Could there be an everlasting chain, like reincarnation?

Building blocks ­ Judaeo/Christian understanding…

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Anthropomorphisation ­ to ascribe to God human like attributes
Attributes ­ qualities that are assigned to someone, or God in particular (e.g. God is good, God is
merciful, God is omnipotent etc)
Epistemic distance ­ the distance between God's knowledge and ours. Humans have a tendency
to ascribe qualities onto…

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God punishes wrong-doers
Job suffers and does not question God's judgement; he accepts the calamities set upon him
graciously from God.
Christian Biblical response:
Christians see God's goodness equates to love and see the creation of the world as an act of love.
Christians respond to God's goodness through obedience.…

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Gaunilo's (The monk) criticism:
One could imagine a perfect island. Gaunilo suggested `the island would be even better if it
was real rather than just in imagination, then, according to Anselm, that island must exist.'
But does it?

Anselm replies (2nd Formulation):
P4 God is eternal, so is not limited…





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