OCR AS ICT - Data, Information and Knowledge

A revision guide covering data, information, knowledge, data types, encoding, verification & validation, information quality, input/output etc!

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AS IT: Information
Systems and
Revision Guide
Hayley Van-Heerden 12.6

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Raw facts and figures
Can contain any character
Has no meaning
Data needs a meaning and context to be classed as
Data +meaning +context = information
Conveying information:
Text Can convey lots of info Can be long winded, have
to know the language,
could be illiterate
Graphics Simple, attractive, Might take time to
interesting, quick understand, cant convey
huge amounts of info
Video Interesting, can convey Can be quite long winded,
lots of info, easy to adverts ect can't be
follow/understand…read more

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Knowledge is the result of interpreting
information, to build up sets of rules based on
probabilities not certainties.
Eg. `Windows 7 is an operating system' this is not
knowledge, because you would have to understand what an
operating system is. Therefore it is information.
Data Types
Boolean: a data type which can only conclude with 1 of
2 values, eg yes or no, true or false.
Real: has decimal places, used where precision is
important, eg 10.54.
Integer: whole numbers only.…read more

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Data Sources
Direct ­ from its original source
Indirect ­ used for a different purpose or a different
organisation using the data compared to who collected it.
Static ­ where the data doesn't and can't change once it
has been created. This includes books and CDs.
Dynamic ­ where once data has been created, it can be
changed and updated freely. This includes the internet.
Factors affecting data quality include...…read more

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Codes can be easier to Difficult to track errors
Validation Methods
Validation is a check performed by the computer as data is being
entered. It tries to prevent the entry of data which does not conform
to pre-set rules.
Range Checks
Sets upper and lower boundaries for data, so that the data entered
must be between the 2 boundaries.
Type Checks
Will not allow you to enter the wrong data type. For example,
entering text into a numeric field will be rejected.…read more

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Allows you to check against a set
combination of numbers and letters (ie 22FFF) so if you type
F2098, it is classed as incorrect.
Verification Methods
Verification is making sure that information on a source document
(eg paper) is the same as information on the object document (eg a
Double entry
Entering data twice, if the computer recognises a difference it
informs the user who can then make appropriate. Often used
with password entry.
Manual verification
Proof reading.…read more

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The costs of producing information
1. Hardware
2. Software
3. Consumables
4. Personnel
Hardware:- Anything used in a computer system,
including a monitor, printer and keyboard. The costs
of hardware include the intial cost of purchasing,
repair, maintenance and upgrades
Software:- Anything used inside of the computer,
including programs. The costs of software include
purchasing licenses, training costs, technical
support and upgrades.
Consumables:- Items that are consumed (USED UP).
The 2 main consumables include paper, and printer
ink/toner.…read more

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Input ­ taking external information and entering it into
the system.
Processing ­ can include sorting, searching or performing
calculations on the data.
Storage ­ where data is held, and is still in the system after
partial or complete processing.
Output ­ Taking processed information out of the system.
This can be through printing, on the screen or electronic
output through a CD or disk.
Feedback ­ looking back on the information you started
with and amending it accordingly.
Hayley Van-Heerden 12.…read more


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