OCR, History, Medicine, Through, Time, Unit 7 Fighting Disease

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Jenner & Inoculation
People attempted to infect themselves by catching smallpox of somebody
who had a mild form of it. The hoped that they would become immune to it.
Through observation he discovered the local belief that milkmaids who had
caught cowpox never caught smallpox. In 1796 he tested this theory on a
young boy, James Phipps, by infecting him with cowpox and then with
smallpox to find that he survived. Jenner called this process vaccination.
There was mixed reaction to his discovery. Many doctors didn't approve as
they were happy using the old method of inoculation which made them rich
and nobody could explain how the vaccine worked. However members of
the royal family had the vaccine and its success encouraged its use to be
widely accepted.
In 1840 the vaccine was made free for all infants and in 1853, it was made
compulsory ­ the first time the government had interfered with the health of
the public.
Louis Pasteur & Germ Theory
Thanks to advances in microscopes by the 19th Century most scientists knew
of the presence of germs or microbes, but thought them to be a result of
disease not a cause. Theory of Spontaneous Generation.
Pasteur did not set out to find the cause of disease but to solve problems for
businesses. He examined how sugar beet went sour during fermentation and
became useless.
By an experiment using a swan-neck flask, he proved there to be a link
between germs and decay by conducting this experiment in public.
In 1865 he studied a silkworm disease, pebrine and in 1867 he proved germs
caused pebrine and found the link between germs and disease.
Robert Koch
Koch began where Pasteur left of, by trying to link a particular microbe to a
particular disease, using his detailed medical knowledge that Pasteur lacked.
He discovered the anthrax microbe in 1875, TB in 1882 and cholera in 1883.
He used developments in bacteriology to stain normally invisible dyes
(taking advantage of the successful German dye industry) and then placed a
new kind of lens in his microscope to photograph and prove his findings.
He also developed a solid culture which were more reliable that Pasteur's
liquid ones.
Together with Pasteur discovering the cause of disease and Koch
discovering the specific microbes responsible, the path was opened to
control disease and develop vaccines.

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Pasteur was determined to outdo Koch and win some pride back for France
after a defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71.
He was asked to investigate Chicken Cholera in 1880 a disease which was
sweeping through the chicken population and potentially ruining the delicate
French economy.
By change one of his team (Chamberland) who was meant to inject the
chickens with a dose of cholera, forgot and went on holiday.…read more

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It is thought that the mould came from a nearby exotic plant research unit
and by chance it had come to be in the culture dishes.
After testing it on animals he discovered that it was effective at killing deadly
germs including anthrax and diphtheria. However he was unable to produce
it in larger quantities and couldn't get the funding to continue research and
so published his findings in journal and left it.…read more

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Fleming is the person famous for Penicillin, when Florey and Chain
probably gave more to its development.…read more


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