Slides in this set
Key Content Revision:
International Relations 1919-39
There are 3 key overview questions:
A. WERE THE PEACE TREATIES OF 1919-23
B. TO WHAT EXTENT WAS THE LEAGUE OF
NATIONS A SUCCESS?
C. WHY HAD INTERNATIONAL PEACE
COLLAPSED BY 1939?…read more
5. http://www.schoolhistory.co.uk/…read more
1. What were the motives and aims of the Big 3 at Versailles?
David Lloyd George Woodrow Wilson
· Said he would `make Germany pay' America had joined the war late and suffered little.
o What Britain wanted to hear. Wilson was an idealist. He wanted to make the world safe.
o Promised this when elected. He thought that if Germany was punished harshly then one day
· Wanted `justice' not revenge. they would recover and want revenge.
· Peace must not be harsh that may cause another war. · Wanted to strengthen democracy - so that people wouldn't
· Middle ground between Wilson and Clemenceau. let leaders cause another war.
· He ALSO wanted: · Believed nations should cooperate to achieve world peace.
o British Empire expanded · Main ideas in: 14 POINTS.*
o British control of the seas maintained
o Britain's trade expanded.
· Wanted Germany to lose navy and colonies because they *14 POINTS:
threatened the British Empire. 1. No secret treaties.
· Keen for Britain and Germany to trade again. 2. Free access to seas in peacetime &
o Before war, Germany was Britain's second largest wartime
trading partner. 3. Free trade between countries.
o Trade with Germany meant jobs. 4. All countries to work towards
5. Colonies to have a say in their own
Georges Clemenceau People in France and future.
France had suffered enormous damage to its land, Britain didn't agree with 6. German troops to leave Russia.
industry and people. Two thirds of the men who 14 points. 7. Independence for Belgium.
had served their army had been killed or injured. They seemed impractical. 8. France to regain Alsace Lorraine.
[Self determination 9. Frontier between Austria and Italy to be
France felt threatened by Germany.
wouldn't work in Eastern adjusted.
Wanted revenge, punishment, and to make Germany
Europe because the 10. Self-determination for the peoples of
pay. countries were full of
Wanted to cripple Germany, so France would not be Eastern Europe.
many different people, 11. Serbia to have access to the seas.
invaded again. and they would end up
· Wanted to split Germany into smaller states. 12. Self-determination for the people in the
being ruled by people with
· To disband the German army. Turkish Empire.
different customs and a
· Huge reparations. different language.] 13. Poland to become an independent state
· To return Alsace-Lorraine to France with access to the sea.
· An independent Rhineland. 14. League of Nations to be set up.
· No League of Nations.…read more
2. Why did the victors not get
everything they wanted?
4 Main Reasons! It is often said that the Treaty of
· Different victors wanted different things, they couldn't ALL have everything they Versailles was a poor peace that it
wanted. [E.g. Britain and France did NOT want a League of Nations, but Wilson angered the Germans, and none of
insisted on little else.] the victors were completely happy
The victors did try they pushed things to the point where in March 1919 the Conference with it.
was about to break up in failure! The eventual Treaty of Versailles HAD to be a
But NEGOTIATIONS = COMPROMISE.
COMPROMISE ... and a compromise is by definition `not getting all you want'.
What do you expect?
· The victors had more than themselves to think about.
The world was in ruins after the great war. The Big Three were VERY aware that it was Germans British French Americans
their job, not just to get what they wanted but to re-build the world to make it `safe for
League of Didn't Didn't
democracy'. Hated it Hated it
Nations want it. want it
That was the vision behind Wilson's Fourteen Points and the League of Nations; but Lloyd
George, too, felt the need for `justice' in the peace. Guilt Clause Hated it OK OK Hated it
There were plenty of people who were not prepared to allow the Big Three just to think German
of themselves and no one else. army Hated it OK
want it want it
Thousands of lobbyists went to Paris to try to get what THEY wanted from the peace, reduced
many of their ideas being directly conflicting. Didn't Didn't
Reparations Hated it OK
· Complexity! want it want it
HOW do you sort out the principles of self-determination? German lost Didn't Didn't
HOW do you work out what figure should be set on reparations? [Suggestions ranged Hated it OK
land want it want it
wildly from £1 billion to £21 billion!]
In the end, the Big Three sanctioned plebiscites (referendums) to let people decide for
themselves which country they wanted to live in, and they set up a Committee of the
League of Nations to put a figure on reparations.
This they allowed SOMEONE ELSE to make the decision ... which by definition isn't getting
everything YOU want.…read more
3. What were the immediate reactions to the peace
The reactions of the Big Three Germany's reaction
France Britain USA Germany
· Unhappy. · Gained some · Wilson got the · Angry.
· Felt treaty wasn't German colonies. League of Nations · Forced to sign the treaty.
harsh enough. · Happy that · Thought the treaty · Weren't allowed to negotiate.
· Thought they Germany's navy was far too harsh · Rejected the treaty when they first heard it.
could be at threat was destroyed. on Germany. · Insulted they weren't invited to join the league
again in future. · However Lloyd of nations.
· Wanted an George thought it · Lost a LOT.
independent was a little too · Lost industrial areas and couldn't rebuild them.
Rhineland harsh and was · Losing their army meant they lost pride.
· Didn't feel the concerned it could · Felt it was unfair that other countries weren't
league of nations bring another war. disarming.
would protect · They didn't want to accept the blame for
them. starting the war as it hurt their pride and didn't
feel they were all to blame.
General opinions varied.
Some people thought it was fair because so much death and damage had been caused.
They were happy Germany had been made weaker and couldn't go to war again.
However the Germans were left feeling weak and resentful, and this could lead to trouble in the future, potentially
Germany simply couldn't afford the reparations, and other new countries were poor.
The peacemakers faced problems as well as a lot of pressure from their people at home.…read more