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Climatic hazards
Content: The study of the development of tropical storms and tornadoes to illustrate:
The atmospheric surface conditions that give rise to their development.
An understanding, with examples of how such systems develop;
Through examples, the hazards they present to particular areas and the impacts these hazards…

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Bordering the eye of most hurricanes is the eye wall: a ring of tall thunderstorms that produce heavy
rains and very strong winds. This is the most destructive part of the storm. Curved bands of clouds
surround the eye wall and trail away in a spiral fashion. These could bands…

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Wind speeds can reach up 250 km/h-1 in the wall of the hurricane with gusts of up to 350 km/h-1
Destruction results from both direct impact and flying debris.
Primary cause of damage to trees and crops; entire forests can be flattened by hurricane force winds,
tall buildings are…

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Tornadoes are among the world's most violent, extreme weather conditions. They are a complex
phenomenon and are difficult to study. They are particularly common in parts of the USA and in the UK. The
UK holds the record for the greatest density…

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Impacts of Tornadoes:
In an average year, about 1000 tornadoes are reported across the USA.
They cause around 80 deaths and over 1500 injuries.
Damage from tornadoes is mainly from three components: strong winds, strong rotational
movements and very low atmospheric pressure near the vortex.
Winds can reach 500km h-1,…

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Polar continental (Pc): air masses originate over central Canada and Siberia. The air is cold, dry and cloud
free giving extremely cold weather in the UK. In the summer months, heating at the base of the air
mass makes it less stable and cloudier.
Tropical Continental (Tc): air masses originate…

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affect the UK since 1703, bringing with it gusts of up to 167 km (104mph). The worst gusts were during the
night ­ had they been during the day the effects would have been much greater. The total cost of insurance
claims was over £860 million, but this figure could…

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Low wind chill can cause hypothermia or frostbite. Frostbite is a severe reaction to cold that can lead
to permanent tissue damage. Hypothermia is a condition in which the temperature of the body falls
below 35 oC, which can lead to a coma and death.
Blizzards are also associated with…

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- longer nights combined with clear skies leads to intense cooling of the land
- increased risk of dew, frost and thicker
- more extensive fog patches which may be slow to clear or even persist
Drought is an extended period of dry weather leading to conditions of extreme…


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