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Plate Tectonics
Plate Margins
Collision Margins:
Conservative Margins:…read more

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Destructive Margins (convergent):
Constructive Margins (divergent):…read more

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Key Words
Plate: a large piece of the Earth's crust. Can be continental or
Plate Margin: the boundary between 2 plates.
Magma: liquid rock inside the Earth.
Mantle: the middle layer of the Earth between the crust and core.
Crust: the outer layer of the Earth. Made up of tectonic plates.
Extinct: never erupt again. i.e. Devil's Tower, Wyoming
Dormant: hasn't erupted in 2000 years. i.e. Santorini, Greece. They
can still erupt suddenly!
Active: erupted recently, likely to erupt again. i.e. Mt.…read more

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E.G. Mt St Helens, USA
tall cone, narrow base, steep sides
made of alternate layers of lava and ash
irregular with long dominant periods
violent explosions possible
Shield Volcanoes: constructive plate boundary.
1. Lava is basic (alkaline) and runny
2. Lava flows quickly and easily spreading
over large areas, forming wide, flat features.
i.e. Surtsey- Iceland
E.G.…read more

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Monitoring: predict when hazards
are coming, people can be warned.
Families: organise supplies of food,
water rations, dust masks, spare
clothes, basic medical supplies,
shelters, torches, batteries etc.
Local Emergency Services: police,
fire fighters, ambulance prepared
for hazard.
Disaster Plans: drawn up by local
authorities/governments to reduce
damage, death and injury via
practise (of evacuation etc.)
Information: on emergency procedures made available for
public. e.g. school classes
Emergency Supplies: of water, power organised in advance.
Monitoring Volcanoes: vulcanologists
Digital cameras on craters' rim.…read more

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North American plate: continental crust
61 deaths
Poisonous gases
Settlements destroyed
Ash polluted river; salmon died
Electricity supplies interrupted
Telephone wires cut
10 million trees had to be replanted
Areas flooded
Road bridges destroyed
Earthquakes occur when 2 plates move and built up pressure is
released. The friction between the 2 plates creates shockwaves
which cause the ground to shake.
Case Study 1 (comparison): Earthquake in Takhar Province,
The country is located on the Iranian, Eurasian and Indian plates.…read more

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Date: 4th February 1998
Duration: 8 minutes 7 seconds
Location: Remote northern Afghanistan. Takhar Province
Magnitude: 6.1 on Richter Scale
Death toll: 4,000
Injury toll: 10,000
Homelessness rate: 15,000
Case Study 2 (comparison): Earthquake in Kobe, Japan
The country is located on the Eurasian and
Philippines plates. It is on a destructive
plate boundary.
Associated Earth movements mean that
Japan is under constant threat from severe
Date: 17th January 1995
Time: 5:46 am
Duration: 20 seconds
Location: Epicentre- Awaji Island,
near Kobe
Magnitude: 7.…read more

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