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Geography
Notes


























Unit 1: People and the physical
world

The Structure of the Earth

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Plate Tectonics

Plate Margins

Collision Margins:










Conservative Margins:

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Destructive Margins (convergent):





Constructive Margins (divergent):






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Key Words
Plate: a large piece of the Earth's crust. Can be continental or
oceanic.
Plate Margin: the boundary between 2 plates.
Magma: liquid rock inside the Earth.
Mantle: the middle layer of the Earth between the crust and core.
Crust: the outer layer of the Earth. Made up of…

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4. molten rock (material that cools and then
hardens forming the volcano mountain from the
mixture of ash and lava)-magma (underground),
lava (reaches surface).

E.G. Mt St Helens, USA
tall cone, narrow base, steep sides
made of alternate layers of lava and ash
irregular with long dominant periods
violent explosions…

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Planning
Monitoring: predict when hazards
are coming, people can be warned.
Families: organise supplies of food,
water rations, dust masks, spare
clothes, basic medical supplies,
shelters, torches, batteries etc.
Local Emergency Services: police,
fire fighters, ambulance prepared
for hazard.
Disaster Plans: drawn up by local
authorities/governments to reduce
damage, death…

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Causes
Oceanic crust forced down by continental.

Results
Over 60 killed.
Houses collapsed due to ash.
Ash burnt exposed flesh of villagers.
Area covered by thick cloud of red-hot ash.
Fertilised soil.
Wet climate allowed 3 crops a year to be
grown on the same plot of land.
Primary effect:…

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North American plate: continental crust

Results
61 deaths
Poisonous gases
Settlements destroyed
Ash polluted river; salmon died
Electricity supplies interrupted
Telephone wires cut
10 million trees had to be replanted
Areas flooded
Road bridges destroyed







Earthquakes
Earthquakes occur when 2 plates move and built up pressure is
released. The friction…

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increase in pressure which is released by frequent, often devastating
earthquakes.

Date: 4th February 1998
Duration: 8 minutes 7 seconds
Location: Remote northern Afghanistan. Takhar Province
Magnitude: 6.1 on Richter Scale
Death toll: 4,000
Injury toll: 10,000
Homelessness rate: 15,000

Case Study 2 (comparison): Earthquake in Kobe, Japan

The country…

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Good communication links; telephone, televisions... can
communicate with unaffected cities
Fire-resistant building materials, reduces amount of damage
Well trained paramedics
Well organised rescue team

Measuring Earthquakes
Seismograph: an instrument which records seismic vibrations.
Epicentre: middle of the earthquake on the Earth's surface
(directly above the focus underground).
Richter scale: the…

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