OCR Geography Case Studies

All the case studies needed for the OCR geography exam on the 17th June.

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Geography Case Studies
River and coastline management:
River Coastline Management - Cuckmere Estuary Defences
Let the current defences fall into disrepair so it will fall back to a salt marsh environment.
o Reasons for the proposed plan
o The existing defences are coming to the end of their life.
o The cost of new defences would be about £20million.
o Current maintenance costs are £50,000 a year.
How the plan will work.
o Once the defences fall into disrepair and it floods, the natural shape of the
land will protect the area from flooding.
o An earth bank built at the northern end of the estuary will protect inland
areas from flooding.
o Footpaths will be raised to higher ground.
o Changes to the area will be monitored to ensure no buildings are at risk of
What are the advantages of the plan?
o 200 acres of salt marsh attracting more birds.
o Landscape will look more natural.
o The natural landscape will provide flood protection, especially against rising
sea levels.
o It works with the environment, has low maintenance costs, which makes it
more sustainable.
Coastal Area Landforms - Flamborough Head
Large scars where the waves have exploited a weakness in the cliff face through process like
abrasion, attrition, hydraulic action and solution (especially hydraulic action).
An arch, made when a weakness in the cliff was eroded through to a cave, which was the
eroded all the way through by various wave processes. Now processes like chemical and
biological weathering will erode the top to leave a stack.
The stack is made when the top bit of an arch collapses, leaving a structure isolated from the
rest of the cliff face.
The wave cut notch is the indent at the bottom of a cliff, this if formed as most of the wave
process, mainly abrasion are focused at the bottom of the cliff. The wave cut notch is made
further and further back until the cliff can't support it and it collapses.
The wave cut platform is sometimes is harder rock, but it is where the sea has eroded the
cliff, but left some behind, as that is the bottom of the sea bed.
The stump is formed when the arch is slowly eroded. At Flamborough head the stump has a
wave cut notch right around it, eventually this will be pushed so far into the stack that it'll
collapse and leave a stump.

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River valley and it's landforms ­ High Force, River Tees, North Pennines
High force is a waterfall about 20 metres high
o It formed because hard rock (whinstone) lay on top of a layer of softer rock
o As the river passes
over the hard rock, the
soft rock below is
eroded more quickly
than the hard rock. This
creates an overhang as
the erosion gradually
undercuts the hard
rock. A plunge pool
forms at the base of
the waterfall.…read more

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To manage flooding
o Cluster villages are villages raised 2m above sea level, each one houses about 30
o Individual homes are raised 2m above sea level on earth banks. The earth banks are
planted with grass to prevent erosion.
o Flood shelters ­ Areas of raised land for livestock, space for 100 families, community
room and toilets.
o Rescue boats are located in the areas most at risk from flooding.
o Radios given to committees who can prepare the locals for incoming floods.…read more

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Tectonic Hazards LEDC ­ Kashmir Earthquake ­ Pakistan
o 7.6 on the Richter scale.
o Kashmir is on the border of India and Pakistan where the Indian Plate is crashing into
the Eurasian Plate, a collision zone.
o On 8th October stress got too much and a mass of rock slid upwards and set off an
o 79 000 dead, 100 000 injured.
o 3.3 million homes destroyed.
o Buildings weren't built strongly so the effects were worsened.…read more

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o 5.2m people normally need food aid, there was a high chance this could reach 15m
during the drought.
o Farmers planted many times but the crops always withered, people don't have the
space needed to grow substantial amounts of food.
o Cholera was a huge problem because of all the dead animals in the Awash River, the
main water source for many. Many people were already weak due to the lack of
food and water, so they were extremely susceptible to disease.…read more

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Government concerned with the rapidly growing Chinese population which could lead to
shortages of food and other problems.
The policy is carried out by laws, taxes, health care and persuasion for those that only have
one child.
Parents that refuse have been fined and are made to completely pay for their children.
Women are encouraged to be sterilised after their first child.
It hasn't really worked as the population is set to grow by 100m between 2005 and 2025.…read more

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Not many low-order goods.
o Not as much selection as in the city centre
o People use cars not public transport.…read more


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