The materials revolution: OCR Salters B

A set of notes following the OCR B salter specification, addressing each point and trying to provide detailed revision notes. Some diagrams and mechanisms need to be looked up in relevent textbooks, the best being the Chemical Ideas textbook by the salters company!

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MATERIALS REVOLUTION
UNIT REVISION BOOKLET
James Smith

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How To Use this Booklet:

This booklet has been created by addressing all the points on the OCR B
salters specification for the section, what's in medicine. I advise reading
through the Book, highlighting or underlining words written in ALL
CAPITALS. I also suggest making a spider diagram or mind…

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The STRONGER the Intermolecular forces, the HIGHER the boiling point of the
polymer. Polymers with electronegative atoms (F, O or N) within them can
form Hydrogen bonds with hydrogen atoms on other chains of the polymer,
making the polymer have an increased melting point (Tm). At temperatures
above it's Tm,…

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normal polymer chains. This makes the polymer even more strong and dense.
Kevlar is made up of benzene rings in polymer chains!



CHAIN LENGTH

The LONGER the chain, there are more and generally greater
intermolecular forces. This means there is a greater strength.

Note that the flexibility of a polymer…

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It is important that the plasticisers added to PVC film used for wrapping food
do not dissolve into fatty foods as they may be HARMFUL to HEALTH!

Cold-Drawing:

Cold drawing is STRETCHING out the polymer. This makes a
polymer stronger. All polymers contain SOME crystalline
regions. The stretching of the…

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R C N R'

H
These are formed from reactions of PRIMARY AMINES with ACYL CHLORIDES.

AMINES

Amines with ONE ALKYL GROUP are called Primary amines. Secondary Amines
have TWO ALKYL GROUPS. Tertiary Amines have THREE ALKYL GROUPS and no
hydrogen atoms on the Nitrogen.

The alkyl group connected to…

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Amines often smell of decaying fish or rotting flesh.

Amines are SOLUBLE in water due to the fact that they can form hydrogen
bonds with water molecules. Amines with longer Alkyl groups are less soluble
as the alkyl groups disrupt the hydrogen bonding.

Amines act as BASES. Due to the…

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If concentrated HCl acid is used for hydrolysis instead of the base, the alcohol
and acid from which the ester was formed from are produced.




Therefore, a polyester will hydrolyse to the dicarboxylic acid and the diol from
which it was derived from!




AMIDES:

If an amide is heated under…

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Heating with moderately concentrated alkali produces the amine and the salt
of the acid!




So in acid conditions, polyamides hydrolyse to dicarboxylic acids and diamine
salts!




(I) Describe the following reactions of amines:

(i) Neutralization by acids

As amines are BASIC, they react with acids by accepting a proton. For…

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(J) Recall the procedure for purifying an organic solid product by
recrystallisation, and explain that the solvent used: must be one in which the
substance is very soluble at higher temperatures and insoluble, or nearly so,
at lower temperatures; is saturated by the substance at higher
temperatures, and on cooling…

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