What's In Medicine Revision Guide (OCR B Salters)

A multi purpose revision booklet that uses the OCR B specification to give focused and detailed information and knowledge required for the What's in medicine section.

HideShow resource information
Preview of What's In Medicine Revision Guide (OCR B Salters)

First 309 words of the document:

How To Use this Booklet:
This booklet has been created by addressing all the points on the OCR B
salters specification for the section, what's in medicine. I advise reading
through the Book, highlighting or underlining words written in ALL
CAPITALS. I also suggest making a spider diagram or mind map to
summarise key points and help the information here stick in your mind. You
could also draw your own images by points on this book that may help you
to remember that point. Alternatively, you could use this book to derive
questions which yourself or other people could test you on! The choice is
yours! Hope this helps.
- An acid is a proton DONATOR! A Strong acid donates LOTS of H+ ions,
whereas a weak acid donates a moderate/little amount of H+ ions!
- A Base is a proton ACCEPTOR!
- In water, an acid donates a proton to form H3O+ ions, which
are called OXONIUM IONS.
- You can use METHYL-ORANGE as indicator to see whether you
have an alkali or an acid. It turns RED in the presence of acid,
and YELLOW in the presence of a base.
If an acid-base reaction is reversible, then you will have an acid and a base on
both sides of the equation as on both sides you require a proton donator and a
proton acceptor.
These reactions contain TWO acids and TWO bases then we think of them in
pairs, called CONJUGATE PAIRS.
If HA is the acid, then A- is it's conjugate base!

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

If A- is the base, then HA is it's conjugate acid!
If H2O is the base, then H30+ is it's conjugate acid!
If H3O+ is the acid, then H20 is it's conjugate base!
Substances that can act as an acid OR a base are described as AMPHOTERIC! H2O
is an example of an Amphoteric substance as it can either ACCEPT or DONATE a
B) Interpret and draw dot-cross diagrams to show how atoms bond
through ionic, covalent and dative covalent bonds.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Recall the physical properties of Ionic, Covalent metallic and simple
molecular structures.
IONINC High Soluble When molten
METALLIC High Not soluble Yes
COVALENT High Not soluble No
SIMPLE Low Not soluble No
C) Describe and explain the acidic nature of carboxylic acids and their
reactions with carbonates and alkalis.
Carboxylic acids are WEAK acids, meaning they dissociate slightly in water.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

E) Describe the following properties/tests of phenols.
ACIDIC NATURE More acidic than alcohols and water, but less so than
carboxylic acids!
REACTIONS WITH ALKALIS (excluding carbonates) They react with bases to
form corresponding salts and water.
NEUTRAL IRON CHLORIDE (III) SOLUTION This is used to test for phenols. If
a phenol is present then the solution will turn a purple colour.
ESTERIFICATION Phenols form esters in different ways to other alcohols.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

As already mentioned, aldehydes can be oxidised further, under the same
conditions, to form carboxylic acids!
Both Aldehydes and Ketones can be REDUCED back to their original alcohols as
via REDUCTION reactions! A powerful reducing agent in SODIUM
TETRAHYDRIDOBORATE (III), NaBH4, is used as the reaction does not take place
The carbonyl groups in ketones and aldehydes both undergo addition reactions
with Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) in the presence of alkali. It adds across the C=O
bond to form CYANOHYDRINS.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

H) Recall the meaning of the concept `Atom Economy' and understand
that most reactions used in chemical synthesis can be classified as:
rearrangement, addition, substitution, elimination; understand that a
condensation reaction is a addition followed by elimination; classify a
given reaction using these terms.
Remember that rearrangement and addition reactions have a higher atom
economy than substitution and condensation reactions, which have higher atom
economy than elimination reactions.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Locate any spots with IODINE, NINHYDRIN or Under a UV lamp.
5) Match the heights reached or Rf values with those of known compounds.
J) Recognize and write formulae for members of the following
homologous series: Diols, dicarboxylic acids, diamines, phenols, acyl
chlorides, acid anhydrides and esters.…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

K) Understand that testing a medicine involves clinical trials, which
answer certain questions about a potential new drug.
PHASE 1 TRIALS This is the first time that medicines are administrated to
humans, usually in studies of healthy, informed volunteers conducted under
the close supervision of a quality doctor. The purpose is to determine if the
new compound is tolerated and behaves in the way predicted by previous
experimental investigations.…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

Usually 200-400 people.
PHASE 3 TRIALS At this stage, the medicine is likely to be compared with a
placebo and possibly another medicine already used for the disease under
investigation to provide a reference standard. Neither the doctor nor the
patients no which medication they are taking. A much larger patient group is
used (3000+). If there are positive results after stage 3, the company
can submit their drug for marketing.…read more



Thank you so much :) XX

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all resources »