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F334 Chemistry of Materials: The Steel Story
Formulae, Equations and Amount of Substance

a) use the concept of amount of substance to perform calculations involving:
Molecular Empirical Formula:
formulae 1. List all the elements in the compound.
2. Underneath them, write their masses.
3. Divide each mass by their molar…

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: The Steel Story
c) given the necessary information, describe and explain procedures for acidbase and redox titrations and
carry out nonstructured calculations based on the results
Acidbase Titration:
1. Fill the burette with acid, ensuring the tip is filled. Take note of the initial burette
3…

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: The Steel Story

Redox

e) given the necessary information, describe redox reactions, of dblock elements (and main group
elements synoptic) in terms of electron transfer:

Oxidation and reduction Oxidation the loss of electrons.
Reduction the gain of electrons.
Oxidation states The oxidation number measures the control…

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: The Steel Story
For example, when manganate(VII) ions are in the conical flask and are being reduced, the reaction is over when
the last of the purple colour disappears. Alternatively, if the manganate(VII) ions are being added from the burette
to a colourless solution, the end…

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: The Steel Story


Example: Find the E cell:


Zn2+
Zn + 2e E
= 0.67
2+
Cu + 2e Cu E
= +0.34
ii) predict the feasibility of redox reactions and understand that the rate of reaction may be an
important factor in deciding whether the…

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: The Steel Story
2+
Fe(s) Fe (aq) + 2e


The electrons released flow in the metal surface to the edges of the droplet.


3. Fe2+ and OH
diffuse away from the metal surface and rust forms in a series of secondary processes.


Fe2+ (aq) + 2OH…

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: The Steel Story
1. The power supply draws electrons out of the metal in the impure lump , oxidising it to form
positive ions .
2. As the impure metal electrode is oxidised, any impurities fall to the bottom of the cell.
3. The positive ions…

Page 8

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: The Steel Story

Cu2+
[Cu(H
2+

2O) 6]

2+
+ 2OH


[Cu(H
2O) 4(OH)
2] + 2H
2O
Pale blue solution Deep blue precipitate
Cu (aq) + 2OH (aq) Cu(OH) 2(s)

Fe2+ [Fe(H
2+

2O) 6]

2+
+ 2OH


[Fe(H
2O) 4(OH)
2] + 2H
2O…

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: The Steel Story













Disproportionation:
A disproportionate transition metal can be both oxidised and reduced at the same time. You can predict this
disproportionation reaction from the standard electrode potentials . If the whole cell potential (E
cell) is positive
then the reaction is likely to happen…

Page 10

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: The Steel Story
Ligand an atom, ion or molecule that donates a pair of electrons to a central metal ion, forming a dative covalent
bond.
Complex ion a metal ion surrounded by dative covalently bonded ligands.
Ligand substitution where one ligand displaces another and occurs if…

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