OCR F334 The Steel Story

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: The Steel Story
Formulae, Equations and Amount of Substance
a) use the concept of amount of substance to perform calculations involving:
Molecular Empirical Formula:
formulae 1. List all the elements in the compound.
2. Underneath them, write their masses.
3. Divide each mass by their molar mass to find how moles there are.
4. Divide each mole by the smallest mole this is your ratio.
5. Make the ratio into the simplest form this is your empirical formula.
Finding the Molecular Formula from Empirical Formula:
1. Find the mass of the overall compound.
2. Find the relative atomic mass of the compound using the empirical formula.
3. Calculate how many times more the mass is than the relative atomic mass and
multiply all the empirical formula elements by it.
Masses of Number of Moles = Mass of Substance
reagents Relative Formula Mass
Number of Moles = Number of particles you have
Number of particles in a mole (6.02 x 10 )
Percentage of Percentage yield = Actual Yield x100
yields Theoretical Yield
Volumes of gases Number of Moles =
Volume in dm3
Volumes of Number of Moles = Concentration x Volume in dm3
solutions of
known Number of Moles =
Concentration x Volume (in cm3)
concentrations 1000
Balanced chemical
b) write and interpret balanced equations, including
ionic, given the necessary information
Ionic Equations:
Ionic equation are only used for precipitation reactions
and only the reactants that are involved in the reaction
are written. The other ions are called spectator ions .
e.g.:CuSO 4(aq) + 2NaOH
Cu(OH) 2(s) + NaSO
Ionic equation: Cu2 +
(aq) + OH
(aq) Cu(OH) 2(s)

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: The Steel Story
c) given the necessary information, describe and explain procedures for acidbase and redox titrations and
carry out nonstructured calculations based on the results
Acidbase Titration:
1. Fill the burette with acid, ensuring the tip is filled. Take note of the initial burette
reading to the nearest 0.05cm and make note of the measurement.
2. Use a pipette filler to obtain 25.0cm3 of alkali in the pipette and run into a 250cm3
conical flask .
3.…read more

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: The Steel Story
e) given the necessary information, describe redox reactions, of dblock elements (and main group
elements synoptic) in terms of electron transfer:
Oxidation and reduction Oxidation the loss of electrons.
Reduction the gain of electrons.
Oxidation states The oxidation number measures the control over electrons.
When working out oxidation numbers, there are certain rules to follow:
Elements and compounds have an oxidation number of 0.…read more

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: The Steel Story
Fe(s) Fe (aq) + 2e
The electrons released flow in the metal surface to the edges of the droplet.
3. Fe2+ and OH
diffuse away from the metal surface and rust forms in a series of secondary processes.…read more

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: The Steel Story
1. The power supply draws electrons out of the metal in the impure lump , oxidising it to form
positive ions .
2. As the impure metal electrode is oxidised, any impurities fall to the bottom of the cell.
3. The positive ions pass through the electrolyte (usually a solution of salt of the metal) since
they are attracted to the negative electrode .
4.…read more

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: The Steel Story
Ligand an atom, ion or molecule that donates a pair of electrons to a central metal ion, forming a dative covalent
Complex ion a metal ion surrounded by dative covalently bonded ligands.
Ligand substitution where one ligand displaces another and occurs if the new complex formed is more stable
than the previous complex, e.g.…read more


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