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Carboxylic acids contain the carboxyl functional group.
Their systematic names all end with ­oic acid.
Naming Carboxylic Acids
When counting carbons in the longest chain to name a carboxylic acid, include the carbon
in the carboxylic acid as the first carbon.
One C atom methane methanoic acid
Two C atoms ethane ethanoic acid
Three C atoms propane propanoic acid
When two carboxyl groups are present, the ending ­dioic acid is used.…read more

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Acid-base reactions
Being weak acids, carboxylic acids partially dissociate in aqueous solution to form oxonium ions H3O+
and carboxylate ions (RCOO - ) :
Carbonate + acid salt + water
HCOOH (aq) + H20 (l) H3O+ + HCOO ­ + carbon dioxide
Methanoic acid Oxonium ion methanoate ion
Carboxylic acids react with bases to produce salts.
They are important chemically because many useful derivatives can be made from them.…read more

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Derivative Functional Group Name
Ester Methyl ethanoate
Acyl Chloride Ethanoyl chloride
Amide Ethanamide
Acid Anhydride Ethanoic anhydride…read more

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The hydroxyl group can occur in three different environments :
· Attached to an alkane chain in alcohols
· Attached to a benzene ring in phenols
· As part of a carboxyl group in carboxylic acids
Test for phenols
When neutral Iron III chloride solution is added to phenol or its derivative, a purple complex is formed.
Acidic properties of alcohols, phenols and carboxylic acids
Alcohols, phenols and carboxylic acids are all weak acids.
They react with water, producing oxonium ions.…read more

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Esters are made by heating an alcohol and a carboxylic acid under reflux in the presence of
concentrated sulphuric acid or concentrated hydrochloric acid.
The reaction is also called a condensation reaction and is reversible; it will eventually reach equilibrium.
The reaction can be reversed and the ester can be hydrolysed.
A more effective catalysts would be sulphuric acid.
Phenols will react with acyl chlorides or acid anhydrides heated under reflux to make esters.
Anhydrous conditions are essential.…read more

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An alcohol is primary, secondary or tertiary.
This depends on which carbon atom the hydroxyl group is bonded to.
Type of Position of ­OH group Example
Primary At end of chain Ethanol
Attached to one alkyl group
Secondary In middle of chain Butan-2-ol
Attached to two alkyl groups
Tertiary Attached to a carbon atom which carries no H 2-methylbutan-2-ol
Attached to three alkyl groups
Alcohol molecules are polar because of the polarised O-H bond.…read more

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Oxidation of Alcohols
The ­OH group can be oxidised by using acidified potassium dichromate. Acidified
This process is called oxidation. potassium
The ­OH group is oxidised to a carbonyl group. dichromate
The orange dichromate ion is reduced to green. Heat under reflux
During the oxidation reaction two hydrogen atoms are removed ­ one from the oxygen atom and one
from the carbon atom.…read more

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Aldehydes and ketones contain a carbonyl group.
Aldehydes end in ­al
Ketones end in ­one
Aldehydes and ketones are prepared by oxidation. Conditions:
· Excess acidified potassium
Reactant for aldehyde : primary alcohol dichromate
Reactant for ketone : secondary alcohol · Heat under reflux
Aldehydes can be further oxidised with acidified potassium dichromate to form a carboxylic acid.
This is because o the hydrogen atom on the carbonyl group.…read more


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