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F334 Chemistry of Materials: The Materials Revolution
Bonding and Structure

(a) explain the term electronegativity; recall qualitatively the electronegativity trends in the Periodic Table; use
relative electronegativity values to predict bond polarity in a covalent bond;
Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom in a molecule to…

Page 2

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: The Materials Revolution
Permanent The + and charges on polar molecules cause weak electrostatic forces of attraction
dipole ­ between molecules, e.g. HCl (H is + and chlorine is ).
These intermolecular forces are stronger than instantaneous dipole induced dipole.
permanent
dipole
Hydrogen Bonds Hydrogen bonding…

Page 3

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: The Materials Revolution
In general, the longer the chains then the stronger the polymer:
longer chains are more tangled together difficult for the chains to slide over each other , so reducing
flexibility.
longer chains have more points of contact with chains of neighbouring polymer molecules…

Page 4

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: The Materials Revolution

Amide
s



(f) use systematic nomenclature to name and interpret the names of aliphatic primary amines and diamines
(use the prefix amino and NH 2 group together with the parent hydrocarbon, e.g. 2aminopropane,

1,6diaminohexane)


















Organic Reactions

(g) explain the difference between addition and…

Page 5

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: The Materials Revolution









(i) describe the hydrolysis of esters and amides by both aqueous acids and alkalis, including salt formation
where appropriate
Step 1: Break the weakest bond :


Step 2: Add H2O
OH adds to C=O
H adds to N


Step 3:
Change the structure…

Page 6

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: The Materials Revolution
Acylation to An acyl group is added to form an amide .
form an Ammonia reacts with an acyl chloride to form a primary amide. In this example, ethanamide
is formed.
amide

A primary amide reacts
with an acyl chloride to
form a…

Page 7

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F334 Chemistry of Materials: The Materials Revolution
Complex ions containing ammonia ligands have their counterparts in
amine chemistry. For example, adding butyl amine to aqueous copper(II) sulfate produces a
2+
dark blue complex ion, [Cu(C 4H
9NH 2)

4(H
2O) 2]
, with a similar structure to the compound
stated…

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