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Slide 1

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MUSIC African A Capella Zulu people speak Swahili in A Capella means
singing South Africa unaccompanied
Occasions: weddings,
Oral tradition- performed
funerals, religions events, Repetitive melodies Homophobic texture
from memory
No conductor- soloist often Iscathmiya means to tip toe-
Harmony Call and response
leads softer and more gentle
Techniques: clicking, buzzing
sounds, slurs, whistles, Ladysmith Black Mambazo
Mbube means lion- loud American Line
and powerful
glissandos, clapping Dance
Choreographed group `Caller' calls moves- Stand in lines, face same
Country western music
dance- synchronise demonstrates steps way and dance same steps…read more

Slide 2

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Each beat is a count, the A restart is when the basic
more counts the trickier the A basic is a repetition of the A wall is the direction the
sequence gets interrupted
dance main dance dancers face
so dance restarts
Each dance has a number of Repetitive melodies with
Steady crotchet bass line Verse chorus verse structure
walls regular 4 bar phrases
Instruments: double bass,
4/4 time, 1st and 3rd beats Country and western style
Dance to recorded music- banjo, fiddle, violin, drums,
accented clothes: check shirts, denim,
dance halls, bars and clubs guitar, harmonica,
cowboy boots and hats
accordion, mandolin
Originated as folk dance to
Fusion of western pop and
Vocal slides Bhangra traditional Punjab folk
celebrate end of harvest by
Migrants of Punjab brought
Traditional instruments:
folk music over, influence Fast tempo: 140-180bpm Punjabi lyrics
dhol, sitar, tumbi, sarangi
by western pop…read more

Slide 3

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Music led by dhol which is Western instruments:
Tabla plays decorative Electronic instruments:
the driving beat, plays the guitars, drum kits,
rhythms over dhol drum machine, synthesisers
chaal rhythm keyboards, bass
Microtonal intervals in
vocal melody, small range
Strong, energetic steps Backing chorus shout hoi in pitch, ornaments, Chamber music
melodies go down at end of
a phrase
No conductor so a close
2-8 players for a small
relationship is needed
Originally intended for a group in front of aristocrats, Followed 4 movement plan:
between players; learn by
small room now performed in concert fast, slow, minuet, very fast
rehearsing and listening
One player leads- sit in semi Baroque chamber
circle so players can watch 1600-1750 J.S. Bach, Handel
leader music
Same mood throughout Terraced dynamics Lots of ornamentation 4 short movements…read more

Slide 4

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Continuo by bass and
Same mood throughout Solo and trio sonatas Harpsichord
harmony instruments
Contrapuntal texture
Motifs and lots of Classical chamber
repetition music
Melody and
Mozart, Haydn Contrasts in mood Balanced 4 bar phrases
accompaniment texture
String quartet, wind
New structure- sonata
Less ornamentation quartet, clarinet quintet, Classical concerto
piano trio
Solo instrument and Sections alternate between Crescendos and
Clear balanced phrases
orchestra solo and tutti sections diminuedos…read more

Slide 5

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Homophonic texture or Cadenza: unaccompanied
Solo instrument and Usually 3 movements: passage for solo
melody plus
orchestra quick, slow, quick instrument
accompaniment texture
Electronic dance
4 strong drum beats per developed from disco ­
Club dance bar with a steady temp remixing existing popular
1980s in Chicago
DJs beat match songs Improvised dancing, jump
More emphasis on music
together Strong drum and bass beat in time to music, dramatic
arm movements
4-on-the-floor rhythms Short phrases with Repeated chord patterns, Digital effects: sequencing,
with layered textures repeated ideas looped repetitive harmony quantising
Scratching, panning, reverb Mixing desks, drum
Delay, panning, reverb
­ effects produced by machines, MIDI sounds,
added in studio Disco
vovoders and filters samplers, synthesisers…read more

Slide 6

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Constant rhythmic drive
Informal dancing in
1970's 4/4, 120bpm with a drum beat on every
beat of the bar
Verse chorus structure Bee Gees, Gloria Gaynor,
Memorable riffs and hooks with middle 8 bridge Syncopated bass lines Donna Summer
Snare drum on beats 2 and Hi-hats play offbeat Solo singer with backing
Bass guitars play short,
4 quavers vocals in chorus singing
rhythmic riffs
Instruments: electric
Horn section plays fills and
Catchy vocal melody with guitar, bass guitar, drum
String countermelodies stabbing chords ­ trumpet,
reverb added kit, keyboards, strings,
trombone, sax
Drum machine and South east Asian islands in Islands of Bali (fast) and
sequencers Gamelan Indonesia Java (meditative)…read more

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Tilly Langford


brilliant, but I can't actually print it off because of 'protected view' :((

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