Music GCSE- OCR

What is a Lieder?
A lieder is a romantic song for one singer an one piano, popular in Europe during the Romantic Period
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What role does the piano play in a Lied?
It is not just a backing accompaniment- it adds a lot to the story telling of the piece
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Where do the words in a Lied usually come from?
They usually come from German poems from the 18th / 19th century and are often very dramatic and emotional
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How are Lieder often structured?
Some are thorough - composed - music changes in each verse or have a strophic structure - music stays the same in each verse
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Why are motifs used in Lied?
They are used to represent different ideas, characters or places. They are repeated throughout the song and often match the words
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Name three composers of Lieder
Schubert, Beethoven, Brahms, Schumann
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What is a song cycle?
It is a collection of Lieder by a composer which all have the same theme.
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Name three well known singer songwriters and the ballads they have played
Elton John- Your Song, Kate Bush- Wuthering Heights, Bob Dylan- Blowing in the Wind
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Describe the accompaniment in pop ballads
Generally reflect the themes of the vocals. There's a lot of repetition of motifs that are sung in the main melody. The texture often varies to make the dynamics more dramatic and sometimes there is an instrumental that does a variation of the tune
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Describe the structure of pop ballads
It is strophic structure. The verses usually have the same tune but the tune in choruses change. There is often a middle 8 and usually end with a coda or outro
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What does A CAPELLA mean?
Singing with no instrumental backing
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What does VIBRATO mean?
When singers quaver up and down in pitch slightly
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What does FALSETTO mean?
When men force their voices to go really high
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What is PORTAMENTO mean?
When a singer slides from one note to another
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What does RIFFING mean?
When singers decorate and add bits to the tune
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How can backing singers sing?
HARMONY- all singing different notes, UNISON- all singing the same notes, DESCANT- singing a higher part, CALL AND RESPONSE
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When were the majority of concertos composed?
During the Baroque and Classical periods
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What is a SONATA?
A sonata has three or four movements and is written for one ore two instruments
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What is a CONCERTO?
A concerto is for a soloist and orchestra and often contain a cadenza, where the orchestra stop and the soloist shows off
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What is a SYMPHONY?
A symphony is a work for a full orchestra and may include an orchestra
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Describe BAROQUE CONCERTOS
They were written as a type of chamber music and were performed in small spaces. For example: Spring from The Four Seasons by VIVALDI. Another type of concerto was the CONCERTO GROSSO - a piece for a small group of soloists
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Describe concertos AFTER 1700's
Composers began to experiment with new instrument. The size of orchestras grew and so did the length of concertos. The strings often played the melody and the woodwind played the harmony
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Describe the standard structure of CLASSICAL CONCERTOS
FIRST MOVEMENT- sonata form, brisk and purposeful, SECOND MOVEMENT- ternary or variation form, slower and song-like, THIRD MOVEMENT- variation or sonata form, fast and cheerful
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Name three composers of concertos
Vivaldi, Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven
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What is JAZZ a fusion of?
Jazz is a fusion of African and European traditions developed in Chicago in the early 20th Century
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Give a famous example of a jazz piece
Basin Street Blue by Louis Armstrong, I got Rhythm, My Funny Valentine, Blue Moon
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What instruments are found in a jazz band?
Trumpet, Trombone, Clarinet and Saxaphones
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What type of chord sequence is used in jazz?
12 bar blues
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What are common features of jazz music?
It is often call and response, a lot of improvisation, syncopated rhythms or swung rhythms and some jazz singers often ****
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What is a RAGA?
It is a series of notes used in INDIAN CLASSICAL MUSIC. Some certain ragas are played during different parts of the days or during different seasons
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What role does the SITAR have?
It plays the melody in INDIAN CLASSICAL MUSIC
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What role does the TAMBURA have?
It plays the drone in INDIAN CLASSICAL MUSIC
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What is a TABLA?
It is a set of drums in INDIAN CLASSICAL MUSIC
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Describe the melody in INDIAN CLASSICAL MUSIC
It is often improvised and played on the sitar. There are hundreds of different ragas that are used to set different moods and all have notes unequally apart.
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What is the main rhythm played on the TABLA called?
The Tala
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What are the four main sections in a typical raga?
The Alap, The Jhor, The Jhala, The Gat
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Where did GAMELAN originated? Where is it played?
It originated in Java and Bali in Indonesia. It is played at celebrations, entertainments and religious events
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What section is used to play Gamelan?
A percussion orchestra
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Why is Gamelan special?
It is seen as a tie to heaven and is thought to be magical and spiritual. Therefore they never step on an instrument in case they break the tie. It is a big honour to play Gamelan
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How is Gamelan learnt?
Through listening, watching and copying.
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What is a SLENDRO?
A 5 note scale used in Gamelan
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What is a PELOG?
A 7 note scale used in Gamelan
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What is the main tune called in Gamelan? What plays it?
It is called the POKOK or the BALUNGAN and a metallophone plays it
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Name three instruments used to decorate the tune in Gamelan
Gender, Bonang, Gambang, Celempung, Suling
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What is the purpose of GONGS in Gamelan? What is the rhythmic pattern used?
They are used to mark time and the cycle is called a SONGAN
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What are the drums called in Gamelan? What is their purpose?
The drums are called the KENDANG GENDING and the KETIPUNG. They are used to set the tempo and to act as conductors
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What is the time signature of Gamelan?
4/4
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What is the difference between BAROQUE and CLASSICAL music?
DYNAMICS: Baroque changes suddenly, whereas classical is more subtle. ORNAMENTS: Baroque is very ornamented whereas classical isn't. INSTRUMENTS: Baroque uses basic, old fashioned instruments whereas classical used varied as well as introduced brass
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What is a BINARY structure?
In two sections - AB
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What is TERNARY structure?
In three sections - ABA
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When were CHORAL CLASSICS introduced?
In the 14th Century in churches
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What are ORATORIOS?
Bible stories set to music
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What is the structure of a choir?
SATB - Baroque choirs were originally all men
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What is the most famous Oratorio? What is it about?
'The Messiah' by Handel- tells the story of Jesus' life
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Name three BAROQUE composers?
Bach, Handel, Pachelbel, Vivaldi
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Name three CLASSICAL composers?
Mozart, Beethoven, Shubert, Haydn
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What is the difference between MELISMATIC and SYLLABIC?
Melismatic- When a syllable is sung over a succession of notes. Syllabic- Every syllable is sung to a single note
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What is the word for when the music matches the words?
WORD - PAINTING
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Name a famous 20th century piece of CHORAL music?
'Carmina Burana' - by Carl Orff
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Why was JOHN RUTTER different?
He ignored serialism and minimalism and was influenced by American song writing and wanted a hummable tune
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Name two well-known CHORAL composers of the 20th / 21st Century
John Rutter, Catherine Jenkins, John Tavener
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Name a famous AFRICAN A CAPELLA group
Ladysmith Black Mambazo
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What is MBUBE?
It is a type of Africian a capella music which is loud and powerful and can be either polyphonic or homophonic
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What is ISICATHAMIYA?
It is a type of African a capella music which is soft and gentle and consists of harmonies and call and responses
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What is the difference between BEL CANTO and NON BEL CANTO?
Bel Canto- trained voices, Non Bel Canto- untrained vioces
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What does HOMOPHONIC mean?
A melody accompanied by chords
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What does POLYPHONIC mean?
Where there are more than one melodies playing at the same time
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What does MONOPHONIC mean?
A single melodic line played by one or more instruments
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Where does the WALTZ originate? When?
In Vienna, Austria during the 1790's
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What is the time signature of a Waltz?
3/4 - Triple Metre
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What is the rhythm of a waltz?
Oom Cha Cha
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What chords are used in Waltz?
Primary Chords
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Describe the dance moves for a Waltz?
It is partnered and choreographed, and move in time with the oom cha cha rhythm and is in a ballroom hold
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What structure does a waltz have?
Binary
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What were waltzes played by?
Big Orchestras
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Name three Waltz composers
Chopin, Schumann, Berlioz, Strauss
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Where does Salsa originate?
Cuba
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What is the repeated rhythm in Salsa called?
A CLAVE - often syncopated and cross rhythms
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Where did Salsa develop?
In New York in the 1960's / 1970's
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What instruments are used in a Salsa band?
Guitar, String bass, Bongos, Maracas, Claves and Tres combined with a big brass band
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What are the three main structures in a salsa tune?
Verse, Mambo, Montuno
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Describe the dance moves in Salsa
It is in a closed position and dance on the spot rather than around the room. It involved two quick steps followed by a longer step on the third beat
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Where did TANGO originate? When?
In Argentina in the 1850's
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Where were Tango performed?
They originally were performed in bars and then progressed to dance and concert halls
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Describe the dance moves in Tango?
It is a paired dance with very close contact and it is a very rhythmic, exaggerated, passionate and sensual dance
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Describe the rhythm of a tango?
It usually includes triplets with syncopation and staccato notes (and normally in a minor key)
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Name a famous Tango composer
Angel Villoldo, Carlos Gardel
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What instrument plays the tune in a Tango?
The Bandoneon
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Where did AMERICAN LINE DANCING originate?
Appalachian Mountains
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Name a famous Western artist?
Billy Ray Cryus, Steps
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What instruments play in an AMERICAN LINE DANCING folk band?
Steel Guitar, Fiddle, Banjo, Mandolin, Accordion, Harmonica, Double Bass
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What is the time signature of AMERICAN LINE DANCING?
4/4
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Describe the dance moves in American Line Dancing
It is individual and choreographed. There are stomps, heel flicks, grapevines and are done in rows
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What instruments play IRISH MUSIC?
Tin Whistle, Bodhran, Accordian, Banjo , Uilleann pipes, Mandolin, Fiddle
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Describe the dances moves in Irish?
It can be a group dance in a square, circle or line and is a set dance
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What is the time signature of a REEL?
4/4
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What is the time signature of a JIG?
6/8
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Where does BHANGRA originate?
Punjab
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What is the rhythm in a Bhangra?
The CHAAL
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What plays an important part in Bhangra?
Music Technology
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Describe the dances in Bhangra?
Some are flowing, some are danced only by women and tell stories and others are only dances at weddings
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Name a Bhangra artist?
DJ Punjab
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Where did DISCO originate? When?
It originated in the USA nightclubs in the 1970's
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Why is Disco in a 4/4 time signature?
It is easy to dance to
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Why was Disco popular?
Due to the catchy words/ phrases and the hooks
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What structure does Disco take?
Strophic Structure
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What does each instrument do in Disco?
LEAD GUITAR- Solo tunes RHYTHM GUITAR- rhythmic chords BASS GUITAR- Bass line/ Riffs BRASS &STRINGS- to create a thicker texture
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What does the drums do in Disco?
BASS- plays every crotchet beat SNARE- plays every 2 and 4 beat HIGH HAT- off beat quavers
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Where does CLUB DANCE originate? When?
In Chicago in the 1980's
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What is the time signature of Club Dance?
4/4
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Describe the dance moves in DISCO and CLUB DANCE?
Free - style or improvised
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How did different styles of club dance develop?
Due to the development of technology
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Name three styles of Club Dance
House, Techno, Drum n' Bass, Trance, Rave, Garage
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Name a famous DJ
Calvin Harris, Fat Boy Slim
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Techniques used to create dance tracks
MIXING- When different records are mixed together SAMPLING- Small bits of rhythm, tune or bass that are mixed with other pieces LOOPING
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Main ways to create a REMIX
Mix in samples, change the texture, introduce breaks
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What role does the piano play in a Lied?

Back

It is not just a backing accompaniment- it adds a lot to the story telling of the piece

Card 3

Front

Where do the words in a Lied usually come from?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How are Lieder often structured?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why are motifs used in Lied?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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