GCSE OCR Music

Full notes for GCSE Music OCR for tomorrows exam! (18/6/2010)

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GCSE OCR Music Notes
Baroque
1. Approx. date: 17th and 18th Centuries (1600 and 1700)
2. Instruments:
Violin
Viola
Cello
Harpsichord
Organ
Recorder
Flute
Oboe
3. Typical forms/structures:
Opera
Oratorio
Fugue
Suite
Sonata
Concerto
4. Composers and their works/pieces:
Purcell ­ Dido and Aeneas
Vivaldi ­ The four seasons
J. S Bach ­ Mass in B Minor
Monteverdi ­ L'Orfeo
Handel ­ Messiah
Domenico Scarlatti ­ Keyboard Sonatas
J. S Bach ­ The well ­ tempered clavier

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Romantic
1. Approx date: 1810 - 1910
2. Instruments:
Full Orchestra
Concert Grand Piano
Violin
Cor Anglais
3. Typical forms/structures:
Opera
Music Drama
Programme Music
Song Cycles
Short Piano Pieces
4. Composers and their works/pieces:
Weber ­ Der FreischÜtz
Rossini ­ William Tell
Wagner ­ The flying Dutchman
Verdi ­ Aida
Schubert ­ Die schÖne MÜllerin
Chopin ­ Four Ballads and other piano music
Tchaikovsky ­ Swan Lake and Symphony no.6
5.…read more

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Plainsong
Singing is unaccompanied
Sung by monks in Latin
Performed in Roman Catholic services
Melody is modal
Resonant acoustics in big churches, cathedrals
Leaps in melody are usually 4ths or 5ths.…read more

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Indian Classical music
Much is based around improvisation
Rag: a group of notes like a scale that the melody is based on
Tabla plays rhythmic improvisations
Tal: a cycle of beats that rhythm of based on
Sitar plays the melody
Gamelan
Music from Indonesia
Based on cycles of melodies played at different speeds
Uses metallic instruments
Drums keep a steady beat
Choir
VOCAL RANGES
Soprano: Highest female voice
Alto: Lowest female voice
Tenor: Highest male voice
Baritone: between tenor and bass
Bass: lowest male voice…read more

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Dance Music
Pavane
Part of a suite of dances from the Renaissance period
The Pavane is the first dance. It is slow and stately
In 4/4 time
Modal
Often has a drone accompaniment
Balanced phrases
Danced at court in pairs. Formal dance, big heavy costumes
Galliard
Followed the Pavane, often based on the same melody
¾ time,
o fast and lively
Modal
Dotted rhythms allow for a jump.
Dance in pairs but not as formal as a Pavane
Strings, lute, tabor are common instruments.…read more

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Disco
Began in the USA
120 beats per minute, fast tempo, usually 4/4 time
Uses much technology:
o Reverb
o Multi tracking
o Looping
o Synthesisers
o Drum machines
Use of hook lines and memorable melody
Short guitar riffs
Simple verse and chord structures
Informal, relaxed dance in clubs or discos
No set dance steps ­ people can dance how they like
Dancers can dance alone or in big groups
Amplified sound ­ loud.…read more

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Traditions and innovations
Salsa:
Cuban Son:
o Son is a dance song from Cuba
Structured around the son clave rhythm
Uses lots of percussion to form complex cross rhythms
Call and response between pregon (lead singer) and choro (chorus) during montuno section.
Sung in Spanish or Portuguese
Melodies move in 3rd or 5ths.
Simple harmonies based on chords I, IV and V.
Ostinato patterns are based on syncopated rhythms.…read more

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Western popular styles
Styles such as rap, reggae, hip hop, drum n bass have all influenced Bhangra.
Bhangra tracks can sound very different to each other as a result of what style is has been fused
with.…read more

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