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GCSE OCR Music Notes
Baroque

1. Approx. date: 17th and 18th Centuries (1600 and 1700)

2. Instruments:
Violin
Viola
Cello
Harpsichord
Organ
Recorder
Flute
Oboe


3. Typical forms/structures:
Opera
Oratorio
Fugue
Suite
Sonata
Concerto

4. Composers and their works/pieces:
Purcell ­ Dido and Aeneas
Vivaldi ­ The four seasons
J.…

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Romantic

1. Approx date: 1810 - 1910

2. Instruments:
Full Orchestra
Concert Grand Piano
Violin
Cor Anglais


3. Typical forms/structures:
Opera
Music Drama
Programme Music
Song Cycles
Short Piano Pieces


4. Composers and their works/pieces:
Weber ­ Der FreischÜtz
Rossini ­ William Tell
Wagner ­ The flying Dutchman
Verdi ­…

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Plainsong
Singing is unaccompanied
Sung by monks in Latin
Performed in Roman Catholic services
Melody is modal
Resonant acoustics in big churches, cathedrals
Leaps in melody are usually 4ths or 5ths.
Melody moves mostly by step
Monophonic texture (1 line of melody sung at a time)


Serialism
Tone row (Prime…

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Indian Classical music
Much is based around improvisation
Rag: a group of notes like a scale that the melody is based on
Tabla plays rhythmic improvisations
Tal: a cycle of beats that rhythm of based on
Sitar plays the melody

Gamelan
Music from Indonesia
Based on cycles of melodies played…

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Dance Music
Pavane
Part of a suite of dances from the Renaissance period
The Pavane is the first dance. It is slow and stately
In 4/4 time
Modal
Often has a drone accompaniment
Balanced phrases
Danced at court in pairs. Formal dance, big heavy costumes



Galliard
Followed the Pavane, often…

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1970s Disco
Began in the USA
120 beats per minute, fast tempo, usually 4/4 time
Uses much technology:
o Reverb
o Multi tracking
o Looping
o Synthesisers
o Drum machines
Use of hook lines and memorable melody
Short guitar riffs
Simple verse and chord structures
Informal, relaxed dance in clubs…

Page 7

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Traditions and innovations

Salsa:
Cuban Son:
o Son is a dance song from Cuba
Structured around the son clave rhythm
Uses lots of percussion to form complex cross rhythms
Call and response between pregon (lead singer) and choro (chorus) during montuno section.
Sung in Spanish or Portuguese
Melodies move in…

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Western popular styles
Styles such as rap, reggae, hip hop, drum n bass have all influenced Bhangra.
Bhangra tracks can sound very different to each other as a result of what style is has been fused
with.
Technology plays a big part in Bhangra:
o Sampling of other tracks
o…

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