LEDC Urban Case Study: Sao Paulo

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Managing Urban Areas Case Study: Sau Paulo
Cities in Brazil are mainly found in the North-West region, away from big areas of rainforest
Sau Paulo has grown so rapidly due to migration and a high natural increase
Push Factors (about rural areas like Bahia) Pull Factors (about urban areas like Sau Paulo)
31% of rural households have no land. They have to rent land or work In 1950's and 60's, there was a shortage of labour in Sau Paulo due to
as labourers. Farms are becoming more mechanised so there is high rapid industrialisation ­ 226%. Advertising campaigns attracted
risk of losing jobs workers to the city
Infant mortality is 175 per 1000 in rural areas. But in the favelas, it is Successful migrants were sent back to their villages which made life in
82 per 1000 the cities seem better than it actually is
Bahia is very poor and suffers periodically from drought. 32 million Rural dwellers have high expectations of better quality of life in cities.
people suffer from chronic malnutrition There are more schools and doctors as government puts more money
into services for urban areas.
Land has been taken from subsistence farmers by the landowners Migration has slowed down growth in urban areas due to high BR and
who want to use the land to grow cash crops, e.g. coffee and orange low DR. Growth rate declined from 1.2% in 1980-1991, to 0.3% in
juice 1991-1996.
Managing the Growth of Sau Paulo
The Perifia
A self-help scheme involving the city council providing and building secure dwellings
Occurred in the late 1980's and early 1990's
Roofing tiles, glass windows, breeze-blocks, flooring and improved street
Running water, underground sewer and drains, baths and toilets and water tanks
Favela Monte Azul
Self-help started during the 1980's
The favela is located next to a polluted stream. 3,800 people are in 400 huts on hillsides. Situated in the southern suburbs of Sau
No clean water or pipes, lack of houses
The projects undertaken were to clean up the stream to provide fresh water and sanitation through pipelines. A wooden clinic was
built in 1985 ­ then re-built as a 3-storey brick house. The scheme now organises nurseries, schools, workshops and bakeries with
120 helpers.
Favela Jardim Jacqueline: in 1994, 190 families a month recieved baskets of food organised by a committee of 9 people. They then
built a day care centre for favela children. They want to employ 18 staff and look after 240 children.
Cingapura Housing Project
Started between 1994 and 1995
It cost $400 million and was expected to help 42,000 people (2.2% of the favelas of Sao Paulo)
Favelas were replaced with 5-11 storey buildings ­ 4 apartments per storey. Most apartments are 42m with 2 bedrooms, a sitting
room, kitchen, laundry and a bathroom.
Householders pay an initial $60 and then $18-26 a month on a 20-year mortgage. This is hard for favela dwellers to pay as they
usually pay no rent and have no money
Pedra Bela Association
Encourages young people to stay in their villages by providing jobs and a better quality of life
Started in 1989, 15 villagers including doctors, farmers and teachers set up the Pedra Bela Association. It had a grant of $45,000 from
the Danish government
It taught local women and young people to grow crops other than potatoes, and to sew and weave. Villagers are taught to make rugs
and cheese. This provides an income to the village when they sell their goods.
300 young people recieved this training (20 at a time). Crafts are sold in Sau Paulo once a month and several shops sell produce
without charging commission. This kept people in their village.

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The lessons take place in carpentry workshops that were built and equipped with donations from a number of European countries,
including Britain
Managing Congestion
The underground train system was built in the 1960's and opened in 1974. It cut down on congestion and also air pollution. It now
carries 2.5 million passengers a day. It is 49km in length and has 46 stations.…read more


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