Theme 1 Case Studies

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Case Study 1: Housing (Location)

The distribution of housing tenure in an urban area and how quality of life varies within an urban area

Key words: Quality of Life- A measure of human happiness

Location: Hastings

  • East Sussex
  • On the coast
  • Between Bexhill and Fairlight

Location: Ashdown

  • North Hastings
  • Suburbs- Rural urban fringe

Location: Ore

  • East Hastings
  • Inner City
  • Close to CBD
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Case Study 1: Housing (About)


  • tightly packed
  • detached housing
  • little passing traffic
  • lots of green space
  • safe


  • lots of main roads
  • lots of traffic
  • terraced housing
  • tightly packed
  • higher density
  • less access to green space
  • larger ward
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Case Study 1: Housing (Statistics)


  • 35.9% of green space
  • majority of people are in elementary occupation (19.7%)
  • lowest in proffesional occupation (3.8%)
  • 24% of people aged 0-15 (highest)
  • 18% of people aged 16-29 (lowest)
  • 18% of pupils achieving A*-C in GCSE's


  • 75.6% of green space
  • majority of people are in manager and senior officials (22%)
  • lowest in elementary occupation (4.5%)
  • 26% of people aged 45-64 (males) and 45-59 (females) (highest)
  • 14% of people are aged 16-29 (lowest)
  • 60% of pupils achieving A*-C in GCSE's
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Case Study 1: Housing (Question)

For a town or city where there are variations in quality of life

Name and locate the town/city: Hastings is situated in East Sussex between Bexhill and Fairlight. It is also on the coast.

Describe how the quality of life varies in different parts of the town/city: Within Hastings the two towns I will compare are Ashdown, which is in North Hastings, and Ore, which is in East Hastings. In Ashdown the quality of life is better because there is 75.6% green space which is better than Ore which has only 35.9% green space. Also education is better in Ashdown as 60% of children are achieving A8-C in GCSE's compared to 18% of pupils achieving the same grades in Ore. Ashdown has little passing traffic however Ore has a lot due to it being situated near main roads. 

Explain why quality of life varies between these two places: More green space will improve quality of life because children have more outdoors space so can play and spend time outside. Since education is better in Ashdown this means that they will be able to get better jobs and will have better qualifications so this will improve their future. Having more passing traffic in Ore means that it is less safe because there is more chance of having a car related accidents. It's also bad for small children because they will not be capable to keep themselves safeby themselves.

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Case Study 2: Distribution of Retail (Location)

Distribution of retail, how this distribution is changing, impact of these changes on different groups fo people

Location: Eastbourne

  • the CBD is located toward the east of Eastbourne 
  • close to the coast

How you know it's a CBD:

  • main roads leading to a ring road around the CBD
  • train station
  • bus station
  • information centre
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Case Study 2: Distribution of Retail (Shops)

A Local Parade of Shops:

  • e.g. Victoria Drive 
  • convenience goods
  • close to home


  • new technology- online shopping
  • bigger supermarkets
  • now people prefer smaller convenience shops

Town Centre:

  • normally a big undercover shopping centre
  • pay for parking
  • centre of communications


  • all the same
  • no independent shops
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Case Study 2: Distribution of Retail (Shops)

Out of town retail parks:

  • on the outskirts
  • industrial parks
  • big units- cheaper rent
  • variety of shops
  • not a lot of housing nearby
  • lots of main roads- easy access

Changes to retail: the high street is in decline because...

  • there is a rise of out of town retail parks
  • interent sales increase
  • recession

The town centre have responded by:

  • building the enterprise centre
  • renovating the current shopping centre
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Case Study 2: Distribution of Retail (Shops)

Enterprise Centre:

  • independent shops
  • low rent
  • near to train station
  • tried to attract cutomers but was unsuccessful

Arndale Centre:

  • £65 million extension (23 new shops)
  • new places to eat
  • to attract more customers

Which groups of people effected by the changes:

  • elderly- no access to the internet
  • independent shop owners
  • harder for workers- more customers, working longer hours
  • harder for some to access the retail parks
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Case Study 2: Distribution of Retail (Question)

a case study about retail change in one urban area

name the urban area: One retail change has occured in Eastbourne, East Sussex

Describe the retail change in this urban area: The change in retail is that local parades of shops, such as Victoria Drive, are shutting down due to other shops in the town centre and outer retail parks. The out of town retail parks have more business as they can be accessed easily due to having good transport links. The town centre is now competting with the out of town retail parks so the Eastbourne Arndale Centre is undergoing renovations to add 23 new shops, new food places and also a cinema. Also the high street is in decline due to various reasons.

Explain the reason for this retail change: The high street is in decline because there is a rise in sales for the out of town retail parks due to them being easy to access and also they have free parking. This means customers can access the same shops in a reatil park and not have to pay for parking rather than having to go to the town centre and pay. Another reason is because there is a rise in internet sales which means less people will be visiting the shops. The Arndale Centre is having to undego renovations because they are having to compete with the out of town retail parks. By having new shops and eateries they will attract more customers so their sales will increase. 

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Case Study 3: Distribution of Cinemas (Location)

Location: Eastbourne

  • The Curzon and Underground Theatre- town centre 
  • Cineworld- Soverign Harbour
  • near main roads 
  • close to other retail/leisure

Underground Theatre and The Curzon:

  • not well publisised 
  • small
  • near train station
  • difficult to park- additional cost
  • next to main road


  • far from town centre
  • near other leisure
  • hard to access- with public transport
  • lots of free parking
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Case Study 3: Distribution of Cinemas (About)

Limiting Factors that Affect Access:

  • age (age restrictions)
  • cost 
  • distace
  • income
  • disability
  • transport

Limiting Factors for Eastbourne:

  • hard to get bus to cineworld meaning some people may not be able to go (e.g. teenagers, elderly)
  • means they have to rely on The Curzon however they don't have a wide range of films available
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Case Study 3: Distribution of Cinemas (About)

Underground Theatre:

  • shows arty/cultural films
  • isn't always open
  • within 5 minutes walk from town centre

The Curzon:

  • two stories- bad access for disabled people
  • available for private hire
  • located in town centre
  • adult- £7 children- £5

Sovereign Harbour:

  • Retail park
  • before 6pm: adults- £7.34 child- £5.45
  • after 6pm: adults- £8.78 child- £6.35
  • 14 bus routes to town centre
  • would have to change bus route at town centre to get to The Crumbles
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Case Study 3: Distribution of Cinemas (Question)

For a service in a town or city

name the service: Cinemas in Eastbourne

describe the distribution of the service within the town/city: The Ungerground Theatre is located in the town centre, near the train station and near to the A259. It can be accessed by the bus, train or car however parking will be an additional cost. The Cruzon is also located in the town centre near the train station and near the A259. Both of these cinemas are near each other and are surrounded by other retail. Finally, Cineworld is located in Sovereign Harbour retail park. It is harder to access by bus however it is easy to access by car as it is near a main road and parking there is free. The ditribution of these cinemas is not good as two of them are quite near each other. 

explain how access to this service varies for different groups of people: Teenagers may find it hard to reach Cineworld because although there are 14 bus routes that go to Eastbourne town centre you then have to change to get to Sovereign Harbour. Parents may also struggle to get to the cinema because they may need to take children but can't due to the age ratings on films. People with diasbility will have problems going to THe Curzon as it is two floors so diasbled people will only because able to acces the screen downstairs. This may mean they can't see the film they'd like because it;s showing upstairs. Also people withlimited money may not be able to afford the transport there or the ticket. 

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Case Study 4: Rural to Urban Migration (Location)


  • North East Brazil
  • Sao Paulo and Rio
  • people moving from NE Brazil to Sao Paulo and Rio

Patterns of migration:

MEDC: urban to rural migration (deurbanisation)

LEDC: rural to urban migration (urbanisation)

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Case Study 4: Rural to Urban Migration (Push Facto

Push factors- leaving NE Brazil:

  • very harsh climate which cause long term drought- dry land means can't grow crops
  • people starve and become very ill
  • no access to clean water, nutritional food or medical attention
  • poverty- hungry, dressed in rags
  • education- lack of it, too expensive
  • high infant mortality rate
  • HEP (hyrdoelectric power)- 120,000 people displaced by Sobradinho projectand 40,000 by Itaporica project. 
  • Forced off their land 
  • life expectancy: NE Brazil- 52(m) 58(f) Rest of Brazil- 59(m) 64(f)
  • infant mortality: NE Brazil- 112/1000 Rest of Brazil- 57/1000
  • adult literacy: NE Brazil- 51% Rest of Brazil- 83%
  • % population below poverty line: NE Brazil- 49% Rest of Brazil- 28%
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Case Study 4: Rural to Urban Migration (Impact)

Impact on NE Brazil:

  • fewer workers
  • not enough workers
  • less business
  • local schools close down

Impact on Sao Paulo:

  • over population
  • traffic congestion
  • air pollution
  • housing shortage- Favelas 
  • increase in disease
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Case Study 4: Rural to Urban Migration (Self Help)


  • Sao Paulo
  • SE Brazil


  • people living in favelas have experienced improvement in the quality of housing
  • authorities provide materials needed which are too expensive for residents- bricks, cements, roof tiles, gutters, windows, doors etc.
  • the residents then group together to improve their houses

How it has effected quality of life:

  • improved quality of life
  • now have permanent, secure and sturdy houses which can withstand poor weather 
  • water, electricity and sanitation were installed
  • area is safer with lighting 
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Case Study 4: Rural to Urban Migration (Question)

name and locate an area within a LEDC from which people have migrated: North East Brazil in South America

describe the effects on the area from which people have migrated: Due to people migrating from NE Brazil there are now a lot less workers which could work on the farms. This means that more work will be created for those who haven't migrated- these are probabaly older people who needed the help in the first place. Also if workers are leaving then it means more businesses will have to close down meaning they will lose money. The local school will also have to close down meaning the children can't access education.

explain why they migrated: The people have migrated from NE Brazil because there is a lack of job opportunities and so peoplecan move to the cities and get better jobs and earn money. There is also better healthcare in the city so there will be less disease/illness. There will also be more education in the city as there will be more teachers and education might also be cheaper. Another reason why they migrated is because the HEP project forced them off their land so they would have had to find other places to live. This may have encouraged people to move to the city as it was an opportunity. Also bad drought in NE Brazil will have dried out the land so no crops can grow. The workers may need money so will move to the city to get a job and earn some money until the drought finishes.  

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Case Study 5: Planning Issue (Location)


  • Falmer football stadium (BHAFC)
  • on the A27
  • close to Falmer (small town)
  • M3 from London
  • easy transport links- A27 and train station

Basic Dates:

  • 1998- applied for planning permission
  • 2007- permission given
  • 2008- building started

Why it was controversial:

  • site borders South Downs 
  • proposal didn't satisfy national planning guidelines
  • no other viable sites
  • bring economic benefit
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Case Study 5: Planning Issue (Opinions)


  • Brighton and Hove Council- good for local business, good transport links, not part of South Downs
  • BHAFC- Withdean stadium is too small, they could be put on the football map
  • Supporters Club- want to host big games, Withdean too small, easy to get to
  • Brighton Chamber of Commerce- attract more people (spend more), provide business opportunities, stadium can be used for other events


  • Falmer Parish Council- village will be disrupted, traffic and noise, value of houses goes down
  • Lewes Distric Council- built on greenfield site, should have redeveloped
  • Resident of Falmer Village- may want to build other things now, extra noise and traffic, worried about vandalism and violence
  • Campaign for Protection of Rural England- area should be protected, valuable countryside lost, should be built on brownfield site
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Case Study 5: Planning Issue (Question)

name the planning issue: Falmer Football Stadium

describe the panning issue: In 1998 Brighton

explain why there is a range of views about this issue

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