Geography - Settlement

Urbanisation, counter urbanisation, development and retail

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Push/Pull Factors in LEDCs


  • Better services 
  • More jobs
  • Higher wages
  • Generally better quality of life


  • Few jobs
  • Low wages
  • Lack of services
  • Poor harvest
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Impacts of urbanisation

Impacts Of Urbanisation:

Urban Area:

  • Traffic, pollution and waste
  • Overcrowding
  • Squatter settlements: overcrowded, disease, illegal, flooding, no services

Rural Area:

  • More elderly people as young move away
  • Fewer services as less demand
  • Elderly cannot farm crops as well so less food
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Urban area fixing problems caused by too many poeple:

  • Build houses
  • Create jobs
  • Improve services eg water supply
  • Push public transport and cycling
  • Squatter settlements: self-help schemes, site and service schemes

Rural area encouraging people to stay:

  • Healthcare
  • Relocate companies there which creates jobs
  • Public transport (so people can live in rural, work in urban aeas)
  • More services
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Counter-Urbanistation in MEDCs

Pull to Rural areas:

  • Transport links
  • Work from home
  • More jobs outside cities

Push from Urban areas:

  • Crime
  • Pollution and traffic
  • Housing can be more expensive
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Rural Impacts:

  • Higher demand so house prices higher
  • Villages empty in the day so less community spirit
  • Commuters use services closer to work so local services get closed

Urban Impacts:

  • If people leave crime areas, then they will become run down
  • Shop and work on outskirts of cities, centre services close
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What are the government doing



  • More housing for locals 
  • Investing in local services


  • Redeveloping urban areas
  • Regenerating shopping centres with public transport & car parking
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Case Studies

Case Studies:

Sao Paulo - Brazil - South America:

  • Squatter settlements are here because it is a large industrial city which rural people travel to in hope of getting a job and better quality of life. 
  • However many of them get trapped and end up living in  the squatter settlements in hope that they will still fulfill their dream

Mumbai - India - Asia:

  • commercial and entertainment capital of India
  • People want to get a job in th city however they could not so waited in the shanty towns
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Laura Dewhurst

thank you! Great help!


thankyou for sharing this! :)

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