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Learning Approach
Observation ­ When watching is the main way of obtaining data and when there is no manipulation
of the independent variable.

Participant observation ­ The observer is also a participant. They are involved in the situation

+ Valid as there is no strange observer affecting behaviour
+ Observers…

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Stimulus generalisation ­ E.g. Pavlov found that dogs would salivate at any stimulus that resembled
a conditioned stimulus. E.g. dogs conditioned to salivate at a circle will also salivate at an oval.

Extinction ­ Pavlov found that he could weaken a learnt behaviour by dissolving the link made
between the…

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(Evaluation for operant conditioning is same as classical conditioning)

Social learning theory ­ Learning through observation.

Behaviour is learnt through observing and imitating another person who acts as a model.

Bandura suggested that learning occurs providing 4 principles are met: -

Attention to the role model ­ if we so…

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Evaluation ­
+ The study has contributed greatly to the understanding of how children acquire
behaviour through observing others. Further research has led to censorship and
certificate laws. It highlights how non-aggressive role models in the media can
encourage helpful behaviour.
+ Observation of children's behaviour is potentially subjective. However…

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Even the choice of toys bought for children encourages gender-appropriate behaviour.


+ The theory has a sound rationale basis. It appeals to our common sense. Operant
conditioning can explain how children are selectively reinforced for sex-typed behaviour
e.g. by pressure from peers or approval by parents.
+ Experimental evidence…


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