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Cognitive Approach
Aim, Procedure, Findings, Conclusion and Criticisms.

Cognitive psychology is the investigation of the mind.

The information processing model is used to explain how we receive, interpret and respond to
information. Information is picked up by the senses, and it is then processed. It is stored in the brain.…

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Experimental hypothesis (H1) ­ A statement which makes certain predictions about the outcome of
the study.

Null hypothesis (H0) ­ It states that there will be no change in behaviour.

Directional or one-tailed hypothesis ­ States the direction in which the results are expected.

Non-directional or two-tailed hypothesis ­ It…

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Experimental design

Independent Measures Design ­ A Repeated Measure Design ­ Same Matched Pairs Design ­ Every
group of participants only do the participants are used in all the participant in one group is
experiment in one condition. conditions. matched with a very similar
Strengths: - Strengths: - person in…

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Findings ­ Participants recognised 15% of words when asked shallow questions, 50% when asked
intermediate questions and 80% when asked deep questions.

Conclusion ­ Participants recall of the words improved when they had to think of the meaning of the
words which involved elaborate rehearsal. Craik and Lockhart suggest that…

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shown and they had to be recalled immediately. For LTM 10 words had to be recalled after 20
minutes. He found that for STM more acoustically dissimilar words were recalled and for LTM equal
amounts of semantically similar and dissimilar words were recalled.

Cue-dependant forgetting ­ It explains the failure…

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Participants involved in laboratory experiments are aware that they need to pay attention to
the video. However, real-life events are often confusing and happen quickly, unlike
laboratory studies that lack ecological validity. Similarly the questioning of participants is
much more intense and important in real-life events than laboratory experiments.


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