The Cognitive Approach Edexcel All You Need

An overview of the topics and studies with all relevant information for describing, evaluating etc.

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  • Created on: 16-05-13 23:52
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The Cognitive Approach
Key Assumptions
The information process model is used to explain how we receive, interpret and respond to
The human brain and mind is like a computer ­ the computer analogy.

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Models of Memory
Multistore Model - Atkinson & Shiffrin
Clive Wearing ­ Case Study
Clive was in a bike accident and damaged his hippocampus.
This meant he couldn't store information in his LTM as his STM was damaged.
This proves the model as it shows how the flow of memory is from left to right and
if the STM is damaged the LTM shouldn't be accessed and this was the case with
Clive.…read more

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Models of Memory
Levels of Processing - Craik & Lockheart
Hyde & Jenkins 1973 ­ Experiment
Participants learned a list of 24 words under different conditions.
No difference in recall was found.
However, a significant difference was found in those who were asked to judge the pleasantness of
the word.
Meaning that the thought process you have to go through to judge the pleasantness adds meaning
therefore being stored in the type II, elaborate section.…read more

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Theory of Forgetting
Cue Dependent Forgetting
Failure to remember is an accessibility problem.
When we store information we also store information that occurs around it.
Tulving encoding specificity principle.
"the greater the similarity between the encoding event and the retrieval event the
greater the likelihood of recalling the original memory"
Therefore if you are in a different state/context to where the encoding event took place you
are less likely to remember, this is called cue dependent forgetting.…read more

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Theory of Forgetting
The theory of displacement can be linked with ideas in the MSM.
It is the idea that information is held for around 30 seconds in the STM.
Here it is either rehearsed so that it enters the LTM, or is lost.
Displacement as a theory of forgetting links to the rehearsal loop in the short term memory,
which has limited capacity.…read more

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Studies in Detail
Craik & Tulving - LOP Experiment
The aim of the study was the test the levels of processing framework, which claimed that the best method
for recall was information that has been processed semantically. The general aim was to see if the durability
of the memory trace comes from the depth of processing.
In the experiments participants were put into situations where they used different depths of processing.
Shallow encoding ­ they were asked questions about the script itself.…read more

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Studies in Detail
Godden and Baddeley- Divers Study
Can natural environment act as a cue to recall?
18 participants in the uni diving club asked to learn a list of 38 words, unrelated 2/3 syllable
4 conditions
Learn dry land ­ recall dry land
Learn underwater ­ recall underwater
Learn dry land ­ recall underwater
Learn underwater ­ recall dry land
Recall 50% higher in cue context condition.
Environment can act as a contextual cue for recall.…read more

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Key Issue
Flashbulb Memory
Are they special? Linked with emotion
A flashbulb memory is when an event was so powerful that people see it in their memory
almost as if a photograph has been taken and can relive the event in vivid detail for a long
period of time afterwards.
Vivid: potentially last a lifetime and tend to be of emotional significance.…read more

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Research Methodology
Lab Experiment
Control of variables
Manipulate IV and measure DV accurately
Can draw up cause and effect relationships.…read more


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