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The Cognitive Approach
Key Assumptions
The information process model is used to explain how we receive, interpret and respond to


The human brain and mind is like a computer ­ the computer analogy.


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Models of Memory
Multistore Model - Atkinson & Shiffrin




Clive Wearing ­ Case Study

Clive was in a bike accident and damaged his hippocampus.
This meant he couldn't store information in his LTM as his STM was damaged.
This proves the…

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Models of Memory
Levels of Processing - Craik & Lockheart


Hyde & Jenkins 1973 ­ Experiment

Participants learned a list of 24 words under different conditions.
No difference in recall was found.
However, a significant difference was found in those who were asked to judge the pleasantness of

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Theory of Forgetting
Cue Dependent Forgetting
Failure to remember is an accessibility problem.
When we store information we also store information that occurs around it.
Tulving encoding specificity principle.
"the greater the similarity between the encoding event and the retrieval event the
greater the likelihood of recalling the original memory"…

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Theory of Forgetting
The theory of displacement can be linked with ideas in the MSM.
It is the idea that information is held for around 30 seconds in the STM.
Here it is either rehearsed so that it enters the LTM, or is lost.
Displacement as a theory of…

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Studies in Detail
Craik & Tulving - LOP Experiment
The aim of the study was the test the levels of processing framework, which claimed that the best method
for recall was information that has been processed semantically. The general aim was to see if the durability
of the memory…

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Studies in Detail
Godden and Baddeley- Divers Study
Can natural environment act as a cue to recall?

18 participants in the uni diving club asked to learn a list of 38 words, unrelated 2/3 syllable
4 conditions
Learn dry land ­ recall dry land
Learn underwater ­…

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Key Issue
Flashbulb Memory
Are they special? Linked with emotion
A flashbulb memory is when an event was so powerful that people see it in their memory
almost as if a photograph has been taken and can relive the event in vivid detail for a long
period of time afterwards.…

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Research Methodology
Lab Experiment
Control of variables
Manipulate IV and measure DV accurately
Can draw up cause and effect relationships.

Field Experiment
IV manipulated
Less controls over variables

Natural Experiment
Naturally occurring event
No control


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