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LANGUAGE CHANGE
Revision Guide
























LEXICAL CHANGE
DIACHRONIC CHANGE = study of the history & evolution of language.

SYNCHRONIC CHANGE = study of language at a particular point in time.

COINAGE = The creation of new words.

NEOLOGISMS = the new words themselves.

Different ways of forming new words:

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1. BORROWING(LOAN) ­ to borrow a term from another language e.g. barbeque from Spain.
2. SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS ­ advances in medicine, science & technology.
3. AFFIXATION ­ new prefixes or suffixes added to existing words e.g. hyperactive.
4. COMPOUNDING ­ joining 2 separate words together e.g. handbag.
5. BLENDING ­…

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Narrowing (specialisation) Word that has a general Meat
meaning can develop a Before: any food
narrower meaning. Now: flesh of an animal
Political correctness can cause semantic change i.e. senior citizens instead of old people.

Figurative expressions give new meanings to old words:

METAPHOR: describe things as if they were…

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SYNTAX USED TO BE MORE COMPLEX

Since 1700 there has been a trend towards sentences being shorter & syntax
becoming less complicated.
Sentences used to contain a lot more subordinate clauses.
Today's English tends to use simpler punctuation (fewer commas, semicolons etc)
therefore making language less formal.

AUXILIARY VERBS

Do,…

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GRAPHOLOGICAL CHANGE

Appearance of letters has changed over time due to type of handwriting, use of DIPTHONG &
LIGATURE LONG S instead of s at the beginning of words.

THE LONG S

Left over from Old English & continued use into Late Modern English.
Used at the beginning & middle…

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GRAPHOLOGY OF MODERN BOOKS IS VARIED:

Earliest books had two columns per page, large margins for making notes.
Modern books can show a great deal of variety in terms of layout, typeface & colour.

ELECTRONIC MEDIA HAS CHANGED THE APPEARANCE OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION:

Can be more creative with graphology.
No…

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LATE MODERN ENGLISH:
1800PRESENT R ISE OF TECHNOLOGY



19TH CENTURY

Industrialisation.
Latin & Greek.
Increase in standard due to availability of dictionaries & drive for more literate society.
Expansion of the British Empire led to words being borrowed from other countries
(17801810).
New advances in science & medicine (Antibiotics1894).

20TH…

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English has borrowed to accommodate new ideas e.g. "curry", "tea".
Globalisation increases the influence of American English.
English is developing as a world language.

WAR & INVASION

Norman conquest & German tribes.
Many synonyms as a result.
Creation of new words from modern lexicon of war e.g. "collateral damage" "surgical…

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Assimilation (one phoneme is affected by the one next to it e.g. "dontchu".
Estuary English (glottal stops).



SOCIAL & CULTURAL CHANGES

Changes in attitude to class & social roles.
Acceptability of same language use (political correctness).
Fashion & culture.
Affects register & grammar.
Youth socialists & nonstandard forms.




REASONS FOR…

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DIVERGENCE

Adopts exaggerated speech behaviour in order to distance themselves from other
speakers or to reinforce their different identity.

CHANGING CAPITALISATION


In Early Modern English capital letters were used on all nouns.
Used at writer's own digression.
























THEORISTS
DENNIS FREEBORN

Incorrectness view = all accents are incorrect compared to standard…

Comments

LuClark

Love this - so useful

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