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BORROWING(LOAN) ­ to borrow a term from another language e.g. barbeque from Spain.
2. SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS ­ advances in medicine, science & technology.
3. AFFIXATION ­ new prefixes or suffixes added to existing words e.g. hyperactive.
4. COMPOUNDING ­ joining 2 separate words together e.g. handbag.
5. BLENDING ­ 2 words merged together e.g. Oxbridge.
6. CONVERSION ­ when new words change class e.g. from noun to verb i.e. mail to mail.
7. EPONYM name of person after which something is named e.g. Sandwich, Braille.…read more

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Narrowing (specialisation) Word that has a general Meat
meaning can develop a Before: any food
narrower meaning. Now: flesh of an animal
Political correctness can cause semantic change i.e. senior citizens instead of old people.
Figurative expressions give new meanings to old words:
METAPHOR: describe things as if they were actually something else e.g. clear the decks
(once associated with the sea now used metaphorically).
METONYMY : when we use a word associated with an object instead of the object's actual
name e.g.…read more

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SYNTAX USED TO BE MORE COMPLEX
Since 1700 there has been a trend towards sentences being shorter & syntax
becoming less complicated.
Sentences used to contain a lot more subordinate clauses.
Today's English tends to use simpler punctuation (fewer commas, semicolons etc)
therefore making language less formal.
AUXILIARY VERBS
Do, have & be
Increasing use has led to word order being changed.
e.g. "not" is now placed BEFORE the verb rather than after it i.e. "I do not deny" rather
than "I deny not".…read more

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GRAPHOLOGICAL CHANGE
Appearance of letters has changed over time due to type of handwriting, use of DIPTHONG &
LIGATURE LONG S instead of s at the beginning of words.
THE LONG S
Left over from Old English & continued use into Late Modern English.
Used at the beginning & middle of words.
Short s used at end of words.
By 1800 long s had been replaced by short s.
Therefore, no longer had a phonological function.…read more

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GRAPHOLOGY OF MODERN BOOKS IS VARIED:
Earliest books had two columns per page, large margins for making notes.
Modern books can show a great deal of variety in terms of layout, typeface & colour.
ELECTRONIC MEDIA HAS CHANGED THE APPEARANCE OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION:
Can be more creative with graphology.
No need to think about printing costs.
Modern day can incorporate animated text & images. Can choose style of font depending
on purpose.
Similar to the changes in graphology with mobile phone.…read more

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LATE MODERN ENGLISH:
1800PRESENT R ISE OF TECHNOLOGY
19TH CENTURY
Industrialisation.
Latin & Greek.
Increase in standard due to availability of dictionaries & drive for more literate society.
Expansion of the British Empire led to words being borrowed from other countries
(17801810).
New advances in science & medicine (Antibiotics1894).
20TH & 21ST CENTURY
New inventions (radio 1907).
Social, cultural & political developments (Suffragette movement during early 1900s,
foreign foods such as Indian Chicken Tikka Masala & credit crunch recession 2004).…read more

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English has borrowed to accommodate new ideas e.g. "curry", "tea".
Globalisation increases the influence of American English.
English is developing as a world language.
WAR & INVASION
Norman conquest & German tribes.
Many synonyms as a result.
Creation of new words from modern lexicon of war e.g. "collateral damage" "surgical
strikes".
Used to make war seem better e.g. "friendly fire".
TRADE & NEW INVENTIONS
New inventions e.g. dishwasher, internet ­ different origins of these words.
Surnames linked to previous occupations.…read more

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Assimilation (one phoneme is affected by the one next to it e.g. "dontchu".
Estuary English (glottal stops).
SOCIAL & CULTURAL CHANGES
Changes in attitude to class & social roles.
Acceptability of same language use (political correctness).
Fashion & culture.
Affects register & grammar.
Youth socialists & nonstandard forms.
REASONS FOR ORTHOGRAPHICAL CHANGES
PHONOLOGICAL
As the sounds of English changed, the written word needed to accommodate this.
Our modern silent e rule evolved from old inflectional endings.…read more

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