Grammar Revision

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  • Child Language Acquisition Grammar
    • Nouns
      • Categories
        • proper
          • Names of places, people etc. Anything starting with a capital. e.g, London
        • Common
          • Concrete
            • Tangible objects. E.g, Bottle
          • Abstract
            • States of beings or concepts
          • Collective
            • Groups of things. E.g, the government
      • Plurals
        • Usually formed by adding an inflectional "-s" or "-es"
        • If the noun ends with a consonant and a "-y", the "-y" should be replaced with "-ies"
        • Endings which include an "-f", the plural is formed with "-ves"
        • Some nouns form irregular plurals. E.g, foot and feet
        • Some nouns don't change their form at all. E.g, sheep
      • Often come with pre-modifiers (before the noun) and post-modifiers (after the noun)
    • Adjectives
      • These describe the noun
      • If they come before the noun they're attributive, if they come after they're predicative
        • Predicative adjectives are normally linked to the noun via the use of some form of the auxiliary "to be"
      • They can be a simple adjective, or a comparative or a superlative
    • Verbs
      • The base form preceded by "to" is called an infinitive
      • Auxiliary verbs appear before the main verb and give extra information in a sentence
      • Can change depending on who's doing the action
        • Changes are called inflections
      • Tenses
        • Present tense is usually formed using the infinitive. For a third person singular present the "-s" inflection needs to be added
          • Can also be used to talk about future events. For example, "Derek is going to be the one driving us on Saturday"
            • Some verbs are irregular. E.g, I swam not I swimmed
        • Past tense is formed (usually) using the inflection "-ed"
          • Some verbs are irregular. E.g, I swam not I swimmed
        • Some would argue that there is no future tense as there's no clear way to add inflections to form it. Instead it is formed using modal auxiliary verb
        • Can create active or passive voice
          • Active, the subject is the main focus and performs the action (verb)
          • Passive, the object is the focus and is followed by the subject
        • Aspect
          • Progressive aspect describes actions which don't have a definitive end to them. They're formed using the present participle and the auxiliary
          • Perfect aspect describes an action which has definite end. Formed using a present form of "have" and the present tense form of the verb
      • Prepositions
        • Show the relationship between things in space, time and direction
        • Goes before the determine and noun
      • Conjunctions
        • Co-ordinating conjunction
          • Involves words such as "and", "or" etc.
          • They connect single words or phrases and clauses that have equal status
        • Subordinating conjunctions
          • Involves words such as "since", "whereas" etc.
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