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Charlotte Round


Early language development
Language development begins in the womb...

DeCasper and Spence found that babies sucked on their dummies more when their
mothers read them the same stories they'd been read in the last six months of
pregnancy
Mehler et al found four day old French babies increased…

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Some people argue babbling is just another stage of vocal play, the sounds do not
carry meaning
However, some people argue it is the beginning of speech:
Petitto and Holowka video recorded infants and noted that most of babbling came
from the right side of the mouth ­ which is…

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Phonological and pragmatic
development
Children learn vowels and consonants at different speeds. They learn to use some
phonemes earlier than others
Most children will be able to use all vowels in the English language at around two and
a half years old
They might not use all consonants confidently until…

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Intonation...

Intonation is even developed at the babbling stage
When children begin to put words together it become more obvious they stress
certain words e.g. mine
Cruttenden found that ten-year-olds had difficulty distinguishing between;
1. She dressed, and fed the baby (she dressed herself, and then fed the baby)
2.…

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Lexis, grammar and semantics
Age Number of words used
18 months 50+
2 years 300
5 years Approx. 3000
7 years Approx. 4000


Children's ability to understand words will develop faster than their ability to use them. E.g.
at 18 months a child can say around fifty but, understand around…

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Analogical is when a word is used to refer to things that aren't in the same category
but have some physical or functional relation to each other e.g. the word `hat' is used
to describe anything related to the head!

Aitchison ­ development process;

1. Labelling is when a child…

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By age five, children will be able to use a variety of grammatical constructions;

1. Coordinating conjunctions (and & but) to link separate utterances
2. Negatives involving the auxiliary `do' e.g. `don't like it'
3. Questions formed with who, where and what
4. Inflections like `-ed' for past tense and…

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4. They automatically used to rule that states ­s is added to create a plural ­ this is
internalisation!

Learning to ask questions:

1. Stage one ­ 18 months: During the two word stage, children start to use rising
intonation to indicate a question...
2. Stage two ­ 2-3: In…

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DETERMINERS

THESE ARE ANOTHER FUNCTION WORD ACQUIRED LATER IN DEVELOPMENT.

THEY ARE ATTACHED TO NOUNS AND ARE: ARTICLES (A, THE), NUMERALS (ONE), POSSESSIVES (MY), QUANTIFIERS
(SOME/MANY), OR DEMONSTRATIVES (THIS.)



POST-TELEGRAPHIC STAGE

THIS IS WHEN THE REMAINING FUNCTION WORDS ARE ACQUIRED AND USED APPROPRIATELY. THE CHILD CAN:

COMBINE CLAUSE STRUCTURES BY…

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Theories of language acquisition
The imitation theory:

Skinner suggested that language is acquired through imitation and reinforcement;

1. Children repeat what they hear (imitation)
2. Caregivers then reward a children's efforts with praise
3. They also reinforce what the child says by repeating words and phrases back and
correcting mistakes…

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