How far do you agree that the economy of Tsarist Russia was transformed in the years to 1914?

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How far do you agree that the economy of Tsarist Russia was transformed in the years to
Alexander III:
Russia the most economically underdeveloped in Europe
Mainly based on agriculture
Difficult to sell enough grain at export to raise money for large-scale industrial development
Needed to improve to maintain position as a Great Power
Only small areas of industry ­ Ukraine, Moscow & St Petersburg
Ivan Vyshnegradsky introduces a financial incentive for peasants to migrate to the Eastern
lands of Siberia
Vyshnegradsky began to finance Russian economic development from foreign loans (France
& Britain)
1892-1914 (Mainly Tsar Nicholas II)
In the 1890s Russia experienced an industrial expansion "Great Spurt", Count Sergei Wittte
5,800 km between 1961-1890 but rate accelerated to produce a national system of 59,616
km by 1905
Trans-Siberian Railway
1908-13 slowest rate of growth since 1880s
Railway network totalled 62,200km compared with USA 411,000km
Other forms of communication inadequate
Only major inner-city roads matched up to European standards
Merchant Marine was small - meant most of Russian trade travelled in foreign ships
Foreign Trade
Major feature of pre-1914 industrialisation
Steady increase in exports & imports
Exports mainly agricultural produce
Balance in industrial goods was to Russia's disadvantage
Heavily involved with Germany, followed by Great Britain
Impact on living condition
By 1900 half of industrial workforce was employed in factories
Large cities grew quickly
Heavy Industry
Not very industrially developed
1910 ­ only 30% of Russia's national production was industrial
Had increased rapidly
During 1890-1912 faced serious foreign & domestic disruptions
Different Russian areas developed differently
Textile production produced 40% of Russia's industrial output in 1910

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Foreign Investment
Vast amounts of foreign powers and individuals involved themselves in Russian industry
About half went into mining & metallurgical industries
By 1900 as much as 90% of the finance behind these sectors came from foreign
Oil production & banking were the next largest recipients of foreign funds
France's input was 33%
Great Britain 23%
Germany 20%
Belgium 14%
USA 5%
The Counter-Revolution 1906-14 (Stolypin's)
Land reforms to encourage higher production, aimed to encourage Kulaks to
become efficient producers
Allowed them to consolidate…read more

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Peasants were encouraged to settle in Siberia in order to alleviate
land shortage.…read more




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