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Tsarist Russia 1855-1917
Revision Guide

Serfs were a peasant labour force owned and controlled by the landowners. Serfs were
basically agricultural slaves. Serfdom was extremely unpopular in Russia. A prominent
opponent was Catherine the Great who held an essay writing competition about serfdom
around 1767. In 1856, Alexander II…

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times of hardship. Votes were arranged so that the nobility could dominate (42% of votes of
district and 74% of provincial voting power), no national assembly was implemented and
corruption was rife among the Zemstva with members looking out for themselves.
Military - Military service was stopped as a punishment…

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Konstantin Pobedonostsev, who also served as Grand-Procurator of the Holy Synod of the
Russian Orthodox Church. Alexander II also strengthened reformed the secret police (which
he renamed from the `Third Section' to the `Okhrana') as well as encouraging anti-Semitic
However, he was reasonably unautocratic when it came to the…

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Georgi Plekhanov. The All-Russian Social and Democratic Labour Party was formed in
1898 (later the Bolshevik and Menshevik parties).
The Hegelian dialectic
Comprised of three dialectical stages of development:
Thesis (idea)
Antithesis (problem)
Synthesis (solution)

Marx's theory of dialectical materialism
Marx thought that communism was the key to breaking the…

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in 1903 split between Lenin's revisionary Bolsheviks and Martov's Pure Marxist Mensheviks.
The Okhrana took special interest in the SDs and arrested/exiled many members of both
The Intelligentsia
Key members of the Intelligentsia included Leo Tolstoy (Author of `War and Peace' and `Anna
Karenina') and Pyotr Struve (A Marxist…

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Grand Duke Sergei (Nicholas's uncle) is assassinated by an SR terrorist
The Bulygin report was created; promising a consultative assembly, freedom of
speech, religious tolerance and a reduction in redemption payments
Bulygin report does not go far enough and students demonstrate in St Petersburg
More strikes break out across Russia…

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(Bolsheviks, SRs and the Union of Russian People). The Duma did not vote for the budget,
Nicholas thought it was too radical and stated that its demands were "totally inadmissible".
The Tsar dissolved the Duma after 10 weeks.
The Second Duma - Feb-June 1907 (4 months) Biggest Party=Trudoviks. The left…

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blessing the Tsar with the sign of the cross. The next morning Tsar Nicholas knelt at
Stolypin's hospital bed and repeated the words "Forgive me". Stolypin died four days later
on 18th September and Bogrov was hanged 10 days after this.
Orlando Figes ­ "There was a Stolypin but no…

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25th ­ Nicholas orders the suspension of the Duma and troops to stop protests
26th ­ Protestors are shot on the streets of Petrograd (but troops soon mutiny)
2nd March ­ Nicholas sends General Ivanov to crush mutiny in Petrograd but Ivanov's
troops mutiny against him. Nicholas's train is stopped…

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April 3rd ­ Lenin returns to Petrograd
4th ­ Lenin issues his April Theses
April Theses
The April Theses suggested that February had not been a genuine class revolution but a
palace coup, which had given power to the bourgeoisie. The April Theses demanded that:
All power should be transferred…


Ste Smith


I've used all of your revision material, absolutely superb mate






brilliant! thank you!

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