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Content
Reform and reaction, 1855­1881 The Tsarist Regime, 1906­1914
· The motives for the reforms of Alexander II, · The work of the Dumas
including the emancipation of the serfs · The agrarian reforms under Prince Stolypin
· The impact of Alexander II's reforms on Russian · Economic development in Russia to 1914
society · The condition of Russia in 1914
· The extent of reaction before 1881 The First World War and the Revolutions of 1917
· The significance of opposition to the Tsarist regime · The impact of the First World War: the collapse of
Political reaction: social and economic change, Tsardom
1881­1904 · The February/March 1917 Revolution
· The impact of industrialisation in Russia: the work · Russia and the Provisional Government and the
of Vyshnedgradsky and Witte October/ November 1917 Revolution
· The problems of the rural economy
· The growth of internal opposition from liberals and
revolutionaries, including the Social Democrats
· The personal rule of Nicholas II and its impact on
Russia's stability
Russia in Revolution, 1904­1906
· War with Japan and the causes of the 1905
Revolution
· The 1905 Revolutions: the part played by liberals,
revolutionaries and nationalists
· The response of the Tsarist regime: the October
Manifesto and the promise of reforms
· The response of the Tsarist regime: repression and
the recovery of Tsarist authority…read more

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The Dumas
Ways in Which the New Russian Government Appeared
Democratic
· The Two Houses (Upper and Lower Chamber) had equal legislative power
· All bodies could veto legislation
· Deputies were elected fro a 5 year term
· Half of Upper Chamber were elected by the Zemstva
Ways in Which Democracy was Restricted
· Lower Chamber members were elected by indirect-voting where a delegate voted
on behalf of a district: 31% were landowners, 42% peasants and 27% town
dwellers
· Half of the Upper Chamber were appointed by the Tsar
· Veto's could be used by all bodies
· The Government was appointed by the Tsar
· All houses had to receive approval of the Tsar
The Tsarist Regime, 1906­1914…read more

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The Electoral System
The Election Campaign for the March 1906 Election was hampered by new
regulations to control public meeting, Pro-Reformists hoped the electoral system
would be universal, equal, secret and direct however Nicholas turned it down `firmly'
The Chambers:
Upper Chamber (Council of State)
· 196 people which was equally composed of elected and appointed members
· Members were chosen by the Church, Provincial Zemstva, Nobility, Universities
andChamber
Lower Business(State
Organisations
Duma)
· 500 people, it had deputies elected in separate electoral colleges according to
class and property
· The 5 largest cities directly elected members whereas elsewhere deputies were
indirectly chosen
· All men over 25 years got theThe Tsarist Regime, 1906­1914
vote…read more

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The Electoral System
Property qualification for voting meant only few factory workers could vote
Representation of the distribution of seat amongst constituencies favoured peasants,
Government expected that more conservative candidates would return
System gave 31% of votes to small class of landowners, 42% to the peasants and 27% to the town
dwellers
From the 500 deputies in the Lower Chamber, 412 represented European Russian provinces, 36
represented Poland and 29 Caucasus, the remaining 23 were given to Siberia, Central Asia and
the Far East
April 1906: The first 2 Dumas were radical so were dismissed allowing Stolypin to issue new
electoral laws under powers granted in the Fundamental Laws
Stolypin restricted the franchise and gave added representation of landowners and peasantry
The number of men that could vote was 1 in 6 so peasants and working class were excluded
The Tsarist Regime, 1906­1914…read more

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The First Duma May-July, 1906
Bolsheviks and Social Revolutionists refused to participate
The Duma was referred to as: `Duma of National Hopes'
It was mainly composed of radical liberals, Kadets won the largest number of seats
More than 1/3 of the 191 new deputies were peasants
Sergei Witte resigned after the elections due to reactionary influences pressure at court
This was a blow for liberals who hoped Witte would guide the Government
April 1906: There was no need to rely of Duma's approval on the Budget since the Government
already had a large loan of 2,250 million gold francs from France
The Duma passed its first act of the `Address to the Throne' which requested political amnesty,
male suffrage, civil service reforms and abolition of the State Council
The Duma passed a vote of `no confidence' in the Government and demanded the Tsar's
ministers to resign
10 weeks later the Duma was dissolved, Gorremykin replaced Stolypin
The Kadets were deprived of their most active leaders due to them spending 3 months in prison
and they also lost their popular response
The Tsarist Regime, 1906­1914…read more

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