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A: Reform and Reaction, 1855 ­ 1881
Explain why Alexander II emancipated the serfs. (12 marks)
Liberal upbringing ­ agree with Western observers that serfdom was morally wrong
Serf revolts ­ serfs dissatisfied with their lot, fear of further revolts
Defeat in the Crimean War ­
Urgent need for change…

Page 2

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Vera Zasulich ­ acquittal alarmed authorities into repressive measures such as
BUT reform didn't die out completely ­ Tsar was contemplating some limited
constitutional reform at time of assassination

Why did Witte promote industrialisation in Russia? (12 marks)
Still agricultural, peasantbased society, boom in railway, iron + oil industries…

Page 3

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How successful was the tsarist regime in overcoming opposition in the years 1863 to
1894? (24 marks)
1. Intro
2. Successful:
Disappointment with Alex II's reforms e.g. peasant riots after emancipation, but
little serious opposition BUT liberals felt reforms didn't go far enough
Alex II's regime survived several assassination attempts…

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2. Reforms limited in impact e.g. political trials independent of normal courts,
assassination attempts + Polish revolts led to Tsar reversing some reforms, control
over universities tightened + censorship tightened
3. Conclusion: impact of modernisation quite limited, essentials of economy, society +
government still in intact in 1881

How far…

Page 5

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Initially welcomed Alex II's reforms but reforms had limitations + didn't reduce power
of autocracy, reforms later dried up or modified
Alex II had no intention of conceding power until assassination, successor v. against

How important was the work of Vyshnegradsky + Witte in the development of the

Page 6

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C: Russia in Revolution, 19041906
Explain why the Russian Social Democratic party split into Bolsheviks and
Mensheviks in 1903. (12 marks)
Lenin wanted small, professional and revolutionary party, led by intellectuals but
Martov wanted mass party
Lenin focussed on revolution,not reforms or attempt to get laws passed
Martov thought Lenin…

Page 7

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Create new class of wealthy peasants ­ prevent recurrence of unrest/revolution
Peasants majority of population, comparatively neglected group
More grain for exports

How successful was Stolypin in strengthening the Tsarist regime? (24 marks)
1. Intro: Stolypin= strong + intelligent, but unpopular
2. Successful:
No effective organised opposition 19061911 ­ leaders…

Page 8

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Activists in exile
Police kept close scrutiny on opposition groups
Manipulation of Dumas ­ Government still in control (first two Dumas dismissed
within months)
Limited reform after 1905
Economic boom 19091913
19061911 peasants allowed to leave mir, consolidate holdings, abolished
redemption payments 1907
3. Unsuccessful:
Upturn in militancy from 1912…

Page 9

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Fundamental Laws reestablished Tsar's powers + dismissal of Witte
Dumas manipulated ­ first two dismissed as they were too radical
4. Alternative:
Force used to crush disturbances ­ revolutionaries hunted down
Bulk of population remained loyal
5. Conclusion: combination of concessions + repression which enabled regime to
survive beyond 1905,…

Page 10

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Explain why Lenin issued the April Theses in April 1917. (12 marks)
Lenin didn't agree with the current Bolshevik views (support PG as belief that
proletariat revolution would come)
Lenin wanted Bolsheviks to revolt now, not to cooperate with PG
Establish control over Party (because he'd been in exile)







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