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Tsars…read more

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Secret Police ­ the Cossacks Rigid
Okhrana hierarchy
No one has a say
Opposition not tolerated
Autocracy Tsar appointed by God
Huge bureaucracy of
civil servants and Tsar was the head of the
officials Church ­ chose head of
Tsar had supreme power
Imperial council advised
the Tsar
DISADVANTAGES: Leaders were not elected on merit, but birth. All of the power was
held in the hands of the Tsar so the country is dependent on his decisions and his
leadership. Only the Tsar has a say in how Russia is run…read more

Slide 3

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People who supported
political reform
Land Captain enforced local
Campaign of Widespread support from
repression aristocracy and senior
1889 ­ Temporarily closed members of the Russian
Zemstva Act 1890 ­ Orthodox Church
1884 ­ Universities lost Government control of local
their self government ­ the councils
Government now controlled Alexander II's Liberal
what students learnt ministers were replaced
University fees increased to Alexander Pobedonostsev given a lot
exclude all but the very
wealthy III ­ The of power
Foreign books and Reaction Masterminded Alexander III'
s manifesto
newspapers heavily
censored by the Okhrana In response to Alexander II's Undid Alexander II's
assassination reforms
14 major newspapers
banned Destroy the terror Statute of State Security
organisations "The People's
Press freedom restricted Will" ­ responsible for his
Government Execution/Exile
father's death
controlled in Siberia
courts to try
People's will and other Government
1887 ­ Tried to assassinate terrorist groups driven opponents No jury
Alexander III underground…read more

Slide 4

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Population of
Unity difficult Lots of Tsar was in the far 250million
as a result different West of Russia ­
races with too far away Lots of time
different zones 1/6 of
RUSSIFICATION POLICY languages world's
Few paved roads land mass
Attempt at unifying
everyone under one ­ big
language, culture and set of country
customs - Russian
Why was Russia Tundra frozen for most of
The teaching Response to a
a difficult the year
of other multi-racial
languages was empire country to Taiga ­ impenetrable forest
Russian Steppes ­ Grassland
forbidden in govern? Far South - Desert
Organised attacks on Jews ­ Pogroms ­ A
mob going into Jewish towns to beat, rob, Rivers Wide rivers with no bridges
rape and/or kill Jews - Many attacks were (Steamboats) ­ to cross them
organised and approved by the Main river -
Government Volga Communication was
All official documents had Only one railway ­ trans-
to be written in Russian Siberian
No electricity to
1885 ­ Russian was made Slow ­ one week to get send messages ­ Mountains
the official language of the from one end of Russia to had to be sent by
whole empire. the other hand…read more

Slide 5

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To maintain this the
Peasant bank 1882 ­ Loan economy needed to be
Introduced laws to reduce
facilities to peasants to help improved, modernised and Largest in terms
the tax burden on the
them increase the size of increase wealth of physical size
peasants - 1882
their landholdings and make and population
them more productive but was the most
1881 ­ Russia was a great
power of Europe, along with
Nikolai Bunge ­ Alexander economically
Britain, France, Germany
III's first finance minister and Austria-Hungary
Resigned in 1887
Took some pressure off land
demand but could not
prevent catastrophic
famines in 1891
Russian Economy focused
on agriculture
Economy ­
1889 ­ Financial incentives Backward and
for peasants to migrate to
1880's Difficult to sell
enough grain
the Eastern lands of Siberia at export to
to farm raise money
for large scale
Ivan Vyshnegradsky industrial
replaced Bunge development
Financed Russia's economic
development from foreign Foundations laid for the
lands Most came from France and rapid economic
Britain by the late 1890's development of Russia…read more

Slide 6

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Exports 453 million roubles.
Imported 652 million
Minister of Finance Sergei Attempt to attract massive roubles
Witte responsible for foreign investment
Peasants forced to pay extra Exports mainly agricultural
taxes produce
Industrial expansion ­ "The
Great Spurt"
Development controlled
directly by the Government
Russia needed to rapidly Development of railways
industrialise BUT: Russian produced impressive
· Lacked a large business growth statistics (but in
class Economy ­ comparison with other
countries, not very good)
· Lacked a large urban
· Lacked enough money
Borrowed 214.7million
to invest in
roubles in 1890
Spent half of money on
mining and metallurgy In the 1900's they borrowed
industries 911 million roubles
Good development in coal,
iron ore, petroleum and Also spent on oil production 1914 ­ borrowed
steel and banking 2000million roubles just
before the War broke out…read more

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this was really helpful! 

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