Henry VIII - Mary I: Complete course notes

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HENRY VIII
Aims:
To be a warrior King ­ won the first war against France and gained the land he had craved
along with a continued large pension but he was deserted by his allies and failed in his dream
to claim the French throne thus falling short of one of his main aims. With Scotland, he was
successful in battle (Flodden) but failed to follow this up and a few years later Scotland
recovered to be a major threat
To secure the Tudor dynasty - ultimately succeeded but was what ultimately drove him to
the break with Rome but he stamped his authority on government, thus increasing the
stability of the crown. He did this by removing important servants of his father (Epsom and
Dudley executed for treason) and used the wealth of his court to impose the crown's
authority on the regions outside London. He faced little opposition because he was rightful
heir
To remain in control of the government
To be a true knight
To preserve the Catholic faith
English Prestige ­ managed to increase his prestige into a position where both France and
Spain wanted him as an ally. `Won' the propaganda battle of the Field of the Cloth of Gold
and became `arbiter of peace' after Treaty of London. However still wasn't considered on
par with the other two powers and couldn't compete with the other two in terms of military
spending and strength showing that his dream to be equal was in vain. Isolated from Cambrai
-
Successes and failures of early foreign policy (1509-29)
SUCCESS FAILURE
JUNE 1509: SPANISH MARRIAGE TO 1512: HENRY ALLIES WITH FERDINAND TO GO
CATHERINE = SPANISH ALLIANCE IN BATTLES TO WAR AGAINST FRANCE ­ DISASTER
AGAINST FRANCE FERDINAND WAS UNRELIABLE AND ENGLISH
TROOPS WERE ILL-EQUIPPED SO WERE
FORCED TO RETREAT
AUGUST 1513: BATTLE OF SPURS 1517: ENGLAND WAS ISOLATED IN EUROPE ­
ORGANISED BY WOLSEY AND GAINED IN 1516 FERDINAND DIED AND CHARLES
TOURNAI AND THEROUANNE REFUSED TO RENEW THE ALLIANCE WITH
FRANCIS, THEN MAXIMILLIAN SIGNED A
TREATY WITH FRANCIS
SEPTEMBER 1513: BATTLE OF FLODDEN 1519: DEATH OF MAXIMILLIAN ­ SUCCEEDED
HEADED BY CATHERINE OF ARAGON + JAMES V BY CHARLES WHICH ROCKS THE BALANCE OF
DIED POWER ­ CHARLES IS NOW KING OF SPAIN
AND OF HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR
1514: WOLSEY SECURED PEACE WITH FRANCE 1523: FRENCH CAMPAIGN FAILED, CHARLES V
­ GETS TO KEEP TOURNAI FOR 5 YEARS AND HAD PROBLEMS TRYING TO REAISE MONEY TO
RECEIVES A PENSION + SECURES MARRIAGE PAY FOR HIS TROOPS AND COST ENFGLAND
BETWEEN MARY AND LOUIS XII £400,00-
1518: TREATY OF LONDON MADE ENGLAND 1525: BATTLE OF PAVIA ­ CHARLES INVADED
THE ARBITER OF PEACE ­ SHORT TERM ITALY, TOOK MILAN AND CAPTURED FRANCIS
SUCCESS AND KEPT THE POPE AS A VIRTUAL PRISONER
WHICH MEANT THE A DIVORCE WOULD BE

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DIFFICULT AND CHARLES CANCELLED
MARRIAGE CONTRACT WITH MARY
1520: FIELD OF THE CLOTH OF GOLD 1525: AMICABLE GRANT HUMILATING
ACHIEVED SHORT TERM PEACE WITH FRANCIS
1525: WOLSEY SET UP THE LEAGUE OF
COGNAC AGAINST CHARLES ­ FAILED MAINLY
DUE TO THE BATTLE OF PAVIA AS CHARLES
HELD THE BALANCE OF POWER
1527 ONWARDS: SEEKING A DIVORCE ­
NEEDED POPES SUPPORT WHICH WAS
IMPOSSIBLE AS HE WAS A PRISONER OF
CHARLES AND CHARLES IS CATHERINES
NEPHEW
1528: HENRY STOPPED TRADE WITH THE
NETHERLANDS AS A WAY…read more

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CAUSE IN SCOTLAND AND INCREASED
ANTI-ENGLISH FEELINGS
FRANCE: 1545: FRENCH CAMPAIGN TO FRANCE:1544: ON THE SAME DAY THAT HENRY
INVADE ENGLAND FAILED, ONLY GOT AS FAIR TOOK BOULOGNE, CHARLES MADE A PEACE
AS THE ISLE OF WIGHT TREATY WITH FRANCIS WHICH LEFT HENRY
ISOLATED
FRANCE: 1546: TREATY OF ARDES: PRESERVED HIGH PRICE FOR A LITTLE GAIN - £2M SPENT
HENRYS HONOR: KEPT BOULOGNE FOR 8 ON WAR CAUSED INFLATION AND MEANT
YEARS AND THEN WAS TO BE GIVEN BACK FOR THAT HEAVY TAXES AND FORCED…read more

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­
therefore successful in improving the legal system of England
ACCESS TO THE KING: seen as successful, Wolsey was fixated on marinating his position.
Wolsey held many important offices but he knew that these depended on fulfilling the king's
wishes.…read more

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­ swift fall from grace
CROMWELL 1532-1540:
Revolution of government consists of:
1) Importance and use of parliament and the relationship with the church and state
2) Bureaucratic revolution = privy council and financial management
3) Extension of control (royal authority in the regions)
(1536 ­ Dissolution of the monasteries)
Pilgrimage of Grace ­ 1536 revolt against the dissolution
FINANCE:
BEFORE CROMWELLS CHANGES EXTENT OF CHANGE
Extensive debt because of The Court Of Augmentations King still kept some money
foreign policy + money ­ former…read more

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Some say that it was an
extension of the Eltham
Ordinances
EXTENSION OF ROYAL AUTHORITY:
BEFORE CROMWELLS CHANGES EXTENT OF CHANGE
Welsh council was ineffective Act of Union in 1536: Wasn't subject to immense
and medieval practices incorporated Wales into the reform
clashed with the notions of English legal system, given Strengthened the power of
the King's authority representation in Parliament the crown and the nation
Calais was a problem ­ didn't and given authority to govern became far more of a single
utilise the…read more

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FOREIGN POLICY: Continued Scottish-French War with little gain and worsened economic deficit.
Victory at Pinkie in 1547: to enforce marriage between Edward and Mary of Scots campaign was
late and allowed for assistance from France Mary married Dauphin. Expensive garrisoning of
Scottish borders and Loss of Boulogne to French in 1549
NORTHUMBERLAND 1550-1553:
STYLE OF GOVERNMENT: benefitted from Somerset's mistakes. Removed political opposition and
elected 16 councillors to control counties.…read more

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MARY 1553-1558:
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL: Although not realised at the time, population growth was the root of many
problems faced. This caused inflation and put pressure of food supplies and jobs ­ living standards
had fallen and rents increased whereas wages didn't increase. Antwerp Cloth Market: 1559 glut of
market so bad that government banned any exports ­ resulted in workers being paid a v.low wage.…read more

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