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Preview of Harmonium

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Sonnet Point Example Effect
4 irregular length stanzas The first verse describes the harmonium as it stands, ready to be discarded. The
F second stanza looks at the instrument in more detail. The third stanza shows the
history of the instrument and the 4th stanza describes the harmonium being carried out
from the church and creates concern towards the father and the speaker's
Colloquial language `bundled off to the skip', `still struck Language isn't too complicated. This creates a sense of honesty and deceptive
Church setting a chord' simplicity. It is also combined with puns associated with music; `still struck a chord' has
Assonance `stained glass', `saints', `choristers' 2 meanings- the harmonium still plays and because it triggers thoughts of the past,
Alliteration stalls' specifically of fathers and sons singing in the church choir.
Sibilance `woollen socks'
The poet uses detailed descriptions to set the scene of the poem and to show him
Repetition `hummed harmonics'
Enjambment `stained glass' reflecting on the present and the past in order to make comparisons.
`pedalled and pedalled', 'day to day' Assonance, sibilance and alliteration helps to create a harmonious rhythm which links
`day to day' to the subject of the poem; the harmonium.
The repetition of `pedalled' shows that this is an ongoing and continuous motion and
creates the sense of it being hard-work and strenuous to do so for so long.
Enjambment after the repetition of `day' shows ongoing time and creates the effect
that the sunlight never failed to `beautify saints' as it gives a sense of continuity.
Personification `lost its tongue', `fingernails', `laid The harmonium is personified through its description and the way it is `laid on its back'
Extended metaphor on its back' as it is carried out of the church, like an important member of the congregation which
`too starved of breath' shows it was once has significant importance in the church.
The harmonium is used as an extended metaphor for the father throughout as well.
This is made clear by the poet when he describes the father as having `smoker's
fingers' which links to when the harmonium is described as having `yellowed
fingernails', which is caused by smoking.
No rhyming, free verse `weight', `freight' The free verse structure helps to support the harmonious rhythm throughout by
Harmonious rhythm throughout allowing the verses to flow freely without being slowed by rhyme.
Internal rhyme The harmonious rhythm, as mentioned before, links to the subject of the poem; the
The internal rhyme slows down the pace of the line by adding literal weight the line.
This reflects either the literal weight of his father once his died, but also hints at the

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This suggests that their relationship is an unhappy one.
Depressing `mouth in reply some shallow or The impression of a poor father-son relationship is given to the audience as the quote
Sad sorry phrase' shows that he does not know how to talk to his own father suggesting that their
Reflective relationship is not an emotional one. This creates sympathy from the audience
towards the speaker of the poem.…read more


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