Hard vs Soft Engineering + Water demand in UK

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Hard vs. Soft Engineering
Hard engineering ­ manmade structures to control the flow of rives and reduce flooding
Soft engineering ­ schemes set up using knowledge of river processes to reduce the effects of
Hard Soft
Dams ­ very expensive Flood warnings ­ gives time to move
possessions upstairs - put sandbags. Do not stop
a flood from happening.
Reservoirs ­ store water for long periods, Preparations ­ Impact of flooding is reduced,
reduces risk of flooding, HEP less damage to buildings. Does not guarantee
safety from a flood
Channel straightening ­ Water moves out of the Flood plain zoning ­ risk of flooding is reduced ­
area more quickly because it does not have to impermeable surfaces aren't created. Expansion
travel far. Flooding may happen downstream, in urban area is limited
more erosion downstream because water is
flowing at faster rate
`Do nothing' ­ farmland is more fertile. Risk and
impacts aren't reduced. Causes a lot of damage.
Explain how the demand for water is met within the UK
Some areas have more water than they need
Some areas have too little
Local areas may store more water e.g. Wales which has more water than it needs
Water in Wales is stored in reservoirs and is supplied to cities e.g. Liverpool
Water can travel long distances via pipelines and aqueducts
Saving water is important ­ reduces cost of transfers
People have new fittings in houses to conserve water e.g. washing machines that use less


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