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Topic 1: Restless Earth

What you need to know:
Differences between oceanic and continental tectonic plates

Different layers of the Earth and how they differ

How convection currents drive plate tectonic movements

The different types of plate boundaries and…

Page 2

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How hazards are measured using the VEI, Richter Scale and Mercalli scale

Difference between primary and secondary impacts

Differences between shield and composite volcanoes

Detailed causes and effects of the Montserrat and Icelandic Eruptions

Detailed causes and effects of the Loma Prieta and Kashmir Earthquakes

How earthquakes and volcanoes can…

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Continental Crust Part of the crust made from less dense granitic rocks
Primary Effects Immediate effects or impacts of a disaster e.g. mud flows, lava flows
Secondary Effects The after effects of a disaster e.g. disease spreads due to dirty
water, loss of economy due to destruction of businesses


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The different types of plate boundaries and the hazards they
Constructive plate boundary...
Where two oceanic plates are moving apart from each other.
New oceanic crust is forming constantly in the gap created.
The magma is injected between the two plates. As it cools it
forms new oceanic crust.…

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Map showing global distribution of Earthquakes

There are however, important exceptions for example the Hawaiian Islands have formed in the middle
of the Pacific Ocean more than 3000km away from a plate boundary. This is explained via `Hot-spot
theory' that there are fixed spots in the mantle where magma rises…

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Mercalli Scale ­for example:

Predicting Volcanoes
Aircraft used to measure the amount of gas the volcano gives off
Tiltmeters detect when the volcano swells up as it fills with magma
Seismometers monitor earth tremors which will increase as magma rises
Boreholes to measure water temperature as magma heats up


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Detailed causes and effects of the Montserrat and Laki Eruptions

Montserrat Eruption 1995 (Composite Volcano)
Location: Montserrat is a small island is situated in the Caribbean and 12 miles long and 7 miles wide.
Montserrat lies on a destructive plate boundary.
As the two plates merge the oceanic plate…

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A Risk assessment was done to help islanders understand which areas are at risk and reduce
problems for the future.

Icelandic Eruption 2010 (Shield Volcano)
Location: Iceland
A constructive plate boundary where the Eurasian plate and the
North-American plate are moving apart
This causes magma to rise to fill…

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Detailed causes and effects of the Loma Prieta and Kashmir Earthquakes

Kashmir Earthquake 2005
Location: Mountainous region between Pakistan and India
A Collision plate boundary involving the Eurasian and Indian Plates
Measured 7.6 on the Richter Scale

Primary Effects:
Pakistan suffered approx 73,000 deaths
Many of the dead were…

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- Evacuation plans

Reducing the impact:
1. Improving building design

Different types of hazard response, both short and long term

Short term:
- This includes mainly immediate aid to keep people alive e.g. tents, blankets and food

Long term:

Created by Natalie Garthwaite 2010


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