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How hazards are measured using the VEI, Richter Scale and Mercalli scale
Difference between primary and secondary impacts
Differences between shield and composite volcanoes
Detailed causes and effects of the Montserrat and Icelandic Eruptions
Detailed causes and effects of the Loma Prieta and Kashmir Earthquakes
How earthquakes and volcanoes can be planned for and predicted
Different types of hazard response, both short and long term
Atmosphere The layers of gases/air around us.
Hydrosphere The layer of water.…read more

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Continental Crust Part of the crust made from less dense granitic rocks
Primary Effects Immediate effects or impacts of a disaster e.g. mud flows, lava flows
Secondary Effects The after effects of a disaster e.g.…read more

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The different types of plate boundaries and the hazards they
Constructive plate boundary...
Where two oceanic plates are moving apart from each other.
New oceanic crust is forming constantly in the gap created.
The magma is injected between the two plates. As it cools it
forms new oceanic crust.
The magma is runny. Shallow sided volcanoes form.
Small earthquakes are formed by friction as the plates tear apart.
Volcanoes that are not very explosive/dangerous.…read more

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Mercalli Scale ­for example:
Predicting Volcanoes
Aircraft used to measure the amount of gas the volcano gives off
Tiltmeters detect when the volcano swells up as it fills with magma
Seismometers monitor earth tremors which will increase as magma rises
Boreholes to measure water temperature as magma heats up
Differences between shield and composite volcanoes
Made from andesitic lava (lower temperatures,
high silica and lots of dissolved gases).…read more

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Detailed causes and effects of the Montserrat and Laki Eruptions
Montserrat Eruption 1995 (Composite Volcano)
Location: Montserrat is a small island is situated in the Caribbean and 12 miles long and 7 miles wide.
Montserrat lies on a destructive plate boundary.
As the two plates merge the oceanic plate is forced down or sub ducted under the continental
plate.…read more

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A Risk assessment was done to help islanders understand which areas are at risk and reduce
problems for the future.
Icelandic Eruption 2010 (Shield Volcano)
Location: Iceland
A constructive plate boundary where the Eurasian plate and the
North-American plate are moving apart
This causes magma to rise to fill the void and magma is erupted onto the
earth's surface.…read more

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Detailed causes and effects of the Loma Prieta and Kashmir Earthquakes
Kashmir Earthquake 2005
Location: Mountainous region between Pakistan and India
A Collision plate boundary involving the Eurasian and Indian Plates
Measured 7.6 on the Richter Scale
Primary Effects:
Pakistan suffered approx 73,000 deaths
Many of the dead were children as it was a Saturday morning ­ normal school day
Many more died as it was Ramadan so people were sleeping after getting up early
for the pre-dawn meal
2.…read more

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Evacuation plans
Reducing the impact:
1. Improving building design
Different types of hazard response, both short and long term
Short term:
- This includes mainly immediate aid to keep people alive e.g.…read more


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