Geography Higher Physical Revision Booklet

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Year 11 Higher 2014
Restless Earth
CONCEPTS
Distribution of plates (locations)
Continental and oceanic plates
Plate Margins; destructive, constructive , conservative
Location and formation of fold mountains , ocean trenches, composite volcanoes and shield
volcanoes
Fold mountain case study
- farming, HEP, mining, tourism,
-how people adapt to; limited communications, steep relief, poor soils
Volcanic eruption case study; cause, primary and secondary effects, positive and negative
impacts and immediate and long-term responses.
Monitoring and predicting volcanic eruptions
Supervolcano; characteristics and the likely effects of an eruption
Location and cause of earthquakes
Features of earthquakes; epicentre, focus, shockwaves and the measurement of earthquakes
(Mercalli and Richter scales)
Earthquake case studies (MEDC and LEDC)
- cause , primary and secondary effects, immediate and long-term responses
Predicting, protecting and preparing for earthquakes
Tsunami case study- cause, effects, responses
CASE STUDIES
Plate boundaries:
-Conservative= San Andreas Fault USA, Pacific Plate and N. American Plate
- Constructive= Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Atlantic Ocean, N American Plate and Eurasian Plate
-Destructive= Japan where Pacific plate is subducted under Okhotsk Plate
Fold mountains- Andes
Volcano- Montserrat, 1997
MEDC Earthquake and Tsunami- Japan 2011
LEDC Earthquake- Haiti, 2010
Distribution or Location of plates/ plate margins/ ocean trenches/ fold mountains/composite or
shield volcanoes /earthquakes
It is likely that you will get a global map of continents
or plates and be asked to describe a pattern
-only describe the feature that is specified in the
question and use the features on the key
-describe it using; `in lines' `on the edge of....'
`clustered' (if relevant)
-use directions
-use plate/boundary names
-give a negative (where they aren't found)
Continental and oceanic plates
Oceanic Continental
Age newer older

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Density denser lighter
Thickness thinner thicker
Other Can be destroyed Cannot be renewed and/or
destroyed
Plate Margins; destructive, constructive, conservative; cause of volcanoes or/and earthquakes
Causes Earthquakes at destructive boundary:
the thin, dense oceanic plate is subducted under the thick, light continental plate
because it is heavier
as convection currents in mantle move them
they snag and tension builds like a machine without oil
a sudden movement sends out shockwaves
causes an earthquake
e.g.…read more

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Composite volcanoes and Shield volcanoes
Composite volcano Shield volcano
Sketch
Characteristics Steep sides, tall, narrow base, Flat, rounded top, low-lying,
sticky/viscous lava broad base,
runny/non-viscous lava
Formation Plates move towards each other due to Plates move away from each
convection currents at a destructive other due to convection
boundary. The denser oceanic plate sinks currents at a constructive
beneath the continental plate. Melting of boundary.…read more

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Volcanic eruption case study; cause, primary and secondary effects, positive and negative
impacts and immediate and long-term responses-Montserrat 1997
Cause
· North American dense oceanic plate subducted under the light Caribbean continental plate.…read more

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Positive and Negative Impacts
Positive Negative
Tourism- Mt St Helens extreme tourism, tourists Death- 23 died in Montserrat 1997
buy ash in bottles and go on tours, so locals are
employed
Beauty- ash turned into pumice stone Lahar devastated Plymouth (Capital of
(exfoliation) and mud baths Montserrat, 1997). Economic implications.
Geothermal energy/heating in Iceland- no Ash polluted spirit lake (Mt St Helens 1980).
greenhouse emissions.…read more

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Monitoring and predicting volcanic eruptions
Monitoring Method What is it? How does it predict?
Using spiders Robots that can access the crater The higher the sulphur dioxide, the
and measure sulphur dioxide more likely that an eruption will
happen.
Measuring earthquake activity Seismographs are used to measure Earthquakes occur because the
earthquakes magma pressure is building up in
the magma chamber, earthquakes
can signal an eruption.…read more

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Supervolcano; characteristics and the likely effects of an eruption
Characteristics:
- much bigger than a normal volcano.…read more

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Focus= within the earth's crust where the earthquake
begins
Epicentre= the point on the earth's surface directly
above the focus (NOT above the surface)
Measurement of earthquakes (Mercalli and Richter scales)
Mercalli= uses observations, it is measured in roman numerals from 1-12. 1 is not felt by people, 12 is
complete devastation, objects thrown into the air. 1 is not felt by people, 12 is complete devastation,
objects thrown into the air.…read more

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