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Year 11 Higher 2014

Restless Earth

Distribution of plates (locations)
Continental and oceanic plates
Plate Margins; destructive, constructive , conservative
Location and formation of fold mountains , ocean trenches, composite volcanoes and shield
Fold mountain case study
- farming, HEP, mining, tourism,
-how people adapt to; limited communications,…

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Density denser lighter
Thickness thinner thicker
Other Can be destroyed Cannot be renewed and/or

Plate Margins; destructive, constructive, conservative; cause of volcanoes or/and earthquakes
Causes Earthquakes at destructive boundary:
the thin, dense oceanic plate is subducted under the thick, light continental plate
because it is heavier
as convection currents…

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Composite volcanoes and Shield volcanoes

Composite volcano Shield volcano

Characteristics Steep sides, tall, narrow base, Flat, rounded top, low-lying,
sticky/viscous lava broad base,
runny/non-viscous lava
Formation Plates move towards each other due to Plates move away from each
convection currents at a destructive other due to convection
boundary. The…

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-how people adapt to; limited communications, steep relief, poor soils

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Volcanic eruption case study; cause, primary and secondary effects, positive and negative
impacts and immediate and long-term responses-Montserrat 1997

· North American dense oceanic plate subducted under the light Caribbean continental plate.
· convection currents move the 2 plates together, causes friction, which increases temperature
· subduction zone is…

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Positive and Negative Impacts

Positive Negative
Tourism- Mt St Helens extreme tourism, tourists Death- 23 died in Montserrat 1997
buy ash in bottles and go on tours, so locals are
Beauty- ash turned into pumice stone Lahar devastated Plymouth (Capital of
(exfoliation) and mud baths Montserrat, 1997). Economic implications.…

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Monitoring and predicting volcanic eruptions

Monitoring Method What is it? How does it predict?

Using spiders Robots that can access the crater The higher the sulphur dioxide, the
and measure sulphur dioxide more likely that an eruption will

Measuring earthquake activity Seismographs are used to measure Earthquakes occur because…

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Supervolcano; characteristics and the likely effects of an eruption

- much bigger than a normal volcano. It is mega/colossal
-Caldera shape (sunken surrounded by area of higher land)

-Erupting 1000 km3 of material

· Local/ Regional:
-33% will be killed within 1000km of eruption, could be up to…

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Focus= within the earth's crust where the earthquake
Epicentre= the point on the earth's surface directly
above the focus (NOT above the surface)

Measurement of earthquakes (Mercalli and Richter scales)

Mercalli= uses observations, it is measured in roman numerals from 1-12. 1 is not felt by people, 12 is…


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