Physical Geography


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Restless Earth
1. Conservative= San Andreas Fault USA, Pacific Plate and N. American Plate
2. Constructive= Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Atlantic Ocean, N American Plate and Eurasian Plate
3. Destructive= Japan where Pacific plate is subducted under Okhotsk Plate
4. Continental is older, lighter, thicker and cannot be renewed or destroyed.
5. Plates move towards each other at a destructive boundary. Thin, heavy oceanic crust
subducted under thick continental crust with lots of friction. Subduction zone is made as
oceanic crust melts and ocean trench forms as crust is pulled down as plates move, causes
friction, which increases temperature. This melts the oceanic rock as it re-enters magma.
Lighter, denser rock forced up through cracks in continental crust, volcanoes erupt.
6. Plates snag and tension builds a sudden movement sends out shockwaves causing an
earthquake. e.g. Japan where Pacific plate is subducted under Okhotsk plate
7. Plates move past each other, but at different speeds. They snag and tension builds like a
machine without oil, a sudden movement sends out shockwaves causing an earthquake
8. Plates move away from each other at Mid Ocean Ridge with convection currents in
mantle, magma rises in the middle. A sudden movement sends out shockwaves and causes
an earthquake. E.g. Eurasion plate and N. American plate moving away from each other.
9. Plates move away from each other at mid ocean ridge with convection currents in mantle.
Magma rises along Mid Ocean Ridge. New land is formed on the plates as the magma
solidifies and volcanoes form.
11. Composite volcanoes are formed at destructive boundaries. They have steep sides, are tall
and have a narrow base with viscous lava. Shield volcanoes are formed at conservative
boundaries and are flat with a rounded top, low lying wide base and mafic lava.
12. The Alps used to be mined for salt, silver and other precious metals, but mining has
decreased dramatically due to cheaper foreign sources. The steep slopes make ideal areas
for HEP. The Berne area in Switzerland gets 60% of its energy from HEP stations in the
Swiss Alps. Forestry is a common pursuit; the wood is logged and sold for furniture and
paper. Scot's pine is planted as it's more resilient to the munching goats that eat native
tree saplings. These goats are also farmed for meat, milk and cheese. Sunnier slopes e.g.
Lavaux, Switzerland are terraced for vineyards. Tourism is popular: the Alps receive over
100 million a tourists a year.
13. Goats are farmed as there are poor soils and they are adapted to live on mountains.
Passes have been built and as have tunnels. E.g. Villages have been built specially to deal
with the number of tourists. E.g. Tignes in France.

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Volcanic eruption case study; cause, primary and secondary effects, positive and
negative impacts and immediate and long-term responses-Montserrat 1997
· North American dense oceanic plate subducted under the light Caribbean
continental plate.…read more

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Positive Negative
Tourism- Mt St Helens extreme tourism, Death- 23 died in Montserrat 1997
tourists buy ash in bottles and go on tours,
so locals are employed
Beauty- ash turned into pumice stone Lahar devastated Plymouth (Capital of
(exfoliation) and mud baths Montserrat, 1997). Economic
Geothermal energy/heating in Iceland- no Ash polluted spirit lake (Mt St Helens
greenhouse emissions. Homes= 66% for 1980). Spirit Lake contained highly toxic
energy and 90% heating water with volcanic gases seeping up
from the lake bed.…read more

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Using spiders Robots that can access the crater The higher the sulphur dioxide, the
and measure sulphur dioxide more likely that an eruption will
Measuring earthquake activity Seismographs are used to measure Earthquakes occur because the
earthquakes magma pressure is building up in
the magma chamber, earthquakes
can signal an eruption.…read more

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Cause of LEDC Haiti 2010:
36. North American dense oceanic plate subducted under the light Caribbean continental
37. convection currents move the 2 plates together, causes friction, which increases
38. subduction zone is made as oceanic crust melts and ocean trench forms as
39. crust is pulled down
40. as plates move, melts the oceanic rock as it re-enters magma
41. lighter, denser rock
forced up through cracks
in continental crust,
volcano erupts
51.…read more

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Primary Effects 70. -16,000 died 74. -316,000 died
-6,000 injured 75. -300,000 injured
-129,000 buildings 76. -280,000 buildings
collapsed collapsed
71. -fires, dam collapse 77. -Archbishop was killed
72. -roads destroyed 78. -Presidential Palace
73. destroyed
79. Secondary 80. -215,000 homeless 85. - 1 million homeless
Effects 81. -Tsunami 86. - Looters were shot
82. -Tsunami caused Nuclear 87. - Port-au-Prince's
leak in Fukishima with morgues overwhelmed
level 7 meltdowns with 1000's bodies.
83. -residents were Therefore buried in mass
evacuated graves.…read more

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Short 109. -$2.5 billion given 115. -$6.63 119. -$6.63 billion
-Term from Governments and billion given from
Response NGOs given Governments and
s 110. -Queen Elizabeth II from NGOs
donation and issued a Governm 120. -Queen Elizabeth
personal message of ents and ll gave a donation
condolence to the NGOs 121. -Jackie Chan gave
President of Haiti 116. -Quee $3 mill
111. -US Army water n 122. -people got off
drops Elizabeth the beach and went
112.…read more

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Prediction methods= forecast when an earthquake will happen (or try to)
137. Protection methods= construct buildings to a safe standard and try and make them
earthquake proof
138. Preparation= involves having equipment, drills and practice so that people know what
to do
140. Prediction
144. Shaking maps are computer-generated scenarios, they help
plan for earthquakes by using data from previous earthquakes
146.…read more

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1) Earthquake Drills (Japan Disaster Prevention Day 1 September).…read more


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