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Restless Earth
1. Conservative= San Andreas Fault USA, Pacific Plate and N. American Plate
2. Constructive= Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Atlantic Ocean, N American Plate and Eurasian Plate
3. Destructive= Japan where Pacific plate is subducted under Okhotsk Plate
4. Continental is older, lighter, thicker and cannot be renewed or destroyed.

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-how people adapt to; limited communications, steep relief, poor soils

Volcanic eruption case study; cause, primary and secondary effects, positive and
negative impacts and immediate and long-term responses-Montserrat 1997

· North American dense oceanic plate subducted under the light Caribbean
continental plate.
· convection currents move the 2 plates…

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Positive Negative
Tourism- Mt St Helens extreme tourism, Death- 23 died in Montserrat 1997
tourists buy ash in bottles and go on tours,
so locals are employed
Beauty- ash turned into pumice stone Lahar devastated Plymouth (Capital of
(exfoliation) and mud baths Montserrat, 1997). Economic

Geothermal energy/heating in Iceland-…

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Using spiders Robots that can access the crater The higher the sulphur dioxide, the
and measure sulphur dioxide more likely that an eruption will

Measuring earthquake activity Seismographs are used to measure Earthquakes occur because the
earthquakes magma pressure is building up in
the magma chamber, earthquakes
can signal…

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35. Cause of LEDC Haiti 2010:
36. North American dense oceanic plate subducted under the light Caribbean continental
37. convection currents move the 2 plates together, causes friction, which increases
38. subduction zone is made as oceanic crust melts and ocean trench forms as
39. crust is pulled…

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69. Primary Effects 70. -16,000 died 74. -316,000 died
-6,000 injured 75. -300,000 injured
-129,000 buildings 76. -280,000 buildings
collapsed collapsed
71. -fires, dam collapse 77. -Archbishop was killed
72. -roads destroyed 78. -Presidential Palace
73. destroyed

79. Secondary 80. -215,000 homeless 85. - 1 million homeless
Effects 81. -Tsunami…

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cost to

108. Short 109. -$2.5 billion given 115. -$6.63 119. -$6.63 billion
-Term from Governments and billion given from
Response NGOs given Governments and
s 110. -Queen Elizabeth II from NGOs
donation and issued a Governm 120. -Queen Elizabeth
personal message of ents and ll gave a donation…

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136. Prediction methods= forecast when an earthquake will happen (or try to)
137. Protection methods= construct buildings to a safe standard and try and make them
earthquake proof
138. Preparation= involves having equipment, drills and practice so that people know what
to do
140. Prediction


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1) Earthquake Drills (Japan Disaster Prevention Day 1 September). Businesses and
schools practice `duck and cover' under tables and also have registers taken to make
sure no-one is missing
2) Earthquake Kits in Japan (mention specific items and explain their uses):
-Torch to search for survivors in case…


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