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Global Challenges Revision
The World At Risk

Topic 1: Global Hazards

Hydro meteorological (caused by climatic Geophysical (caused by
processes) land processes)
· Tropical storm Tectonic Geomorphological
· Tornadoes
· Wild fires
· Drought
· Floods
· Sandstorms
· Volcanic · Landslides
eruptions, · Avalanches
· Earthquakes and
· Tsunamis…

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Capacity to Cope [C]

The risk of natural disaster increases as the frequency or magnitude of hazards increases, people's
vulnerability increases and people's capacity to cope with the consequences decreases.

Is the world becoming more hazardous?
Natural Hazard - an event that has an impact on people and human activity…

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These hazards can become disasters if the frequency of people affected and magnitude of the
event are high enough that a country's government cannot support itself and needs foreign

· Hydro-meteorological hazards seem to be becoming more frequent.
· It is thought that the increase in hydro-meteorological hazards is…

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within LDCs.
Impact of human activities: e.g deforestation in upper
catchments or urbanisation both increase flood risk ­
Destruction of mangroves increases coastal flooding risk in
tropical latitudes.
Death tolls are falling due to improvements in
infrastructure, medical care etc...


The Asian Tsunami (Boxing Day 2004)
· Multinational…

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Survey) 4. Implement an early warning system
5. More coverage (interviews) = more aid
Problems they may face?
1. Poor local technology
2. Lack of data
3. Language barrier
Media Roles brought:
1. Move coverage = donations
2. Help find missing people
3. Filing reports, providing data
Problems they may…

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2nd most affected country

Ampara, SE Sri Lanka:
· Deaths = 10,436
· Missing: 0
· Injured: 120

Most deaths during and immediately after.
56% victims = children
15% of deaths = 50+ years old

Ampara = Middle of SL, HIGHLANDS
Most vulnerable people suffered the worst.
Rapid coastal urbanisation…

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· most damaging are Low Frequency High Magnitude Events
· They are found along Convergent and Transform margins
· Convergent margins = the force of compression causes stresses to build up ­ pressure
released the ground surface shakes (EPICENTRE)
Philippines = Ocean and Continental plates collide (Convergent)
Himalayas = two…

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Can easily afford shelters and places for people to Technology is developing more now.
stay when evacuating.
Predictions better due to high amount of
technology and money spent on this.
Disasters: 1. The San Andreas Fault runs the length of 2) Earthquakes
Earthquakes California ­ it's a conservative plate boundary…

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3. Impermeable clays around Santa Monica. from the mantle below
4. Building on steep slopes = further hazard ·Mount Pinatubo is a volcano that erupted in
increase. 1991. Many people were evacuated, buildings
5. 2003- Series of landslides kills collapsed, crops were destroyed and
16. Wildfires removed vegetation = unstable…

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Mount Pinatubo when it erupted in

El Niño
· It is part of a cycle of approx. 7 years
· 1-2 years occur as El Niño years
· (1-2 years also occur as La Niña)
Main facts:
· Pressure systems and weather patterns REVERSE.
· Warmer waters in E. Pacific.…


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