Global Challenges Revision: The World At Risk

Revision notes from the Physical topics of Unit 1.

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Global Challenges Revision
The World At Risk
Topic 1: Global Hazards
Hydro meteorological (caused by climatic Geophysical (caused by
processes) land processes)
· Tropical storm Tectonic Geomorphological
· Tornadoes
· Wild fires
· Drought
· Floods
· Sandstorms
· Volcanic · Landslides
eruptions, · Avalanches
· Earthquakes and
· Tsunamis
It can be hard to categorise natural events into these three classifications, as some overlap. For
example, tsunamis can cause flooding.
Disaster ­ When a hazard seriously affects humans
Risk ­ The likelihood that humans will be seriously affected by a hazard
Vulnerability ­ How susceptible a population is to the damage caused by a hazard.
The Disaster Risk Equation
Risk [R] = Hazard [H] x Vulnerability [V]

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Capacity to Cope [C]
The risk of natural disaster increases as the frequency or magnitude of hazards increases, people's
vulnerability increases and people's capacity to cope with the consequences decreases.
Is the world becoming more hazardous?
Natural Hazard - an event that has an impact on people and human activity
Magnitude ­ The scale or size of the physical event (e.g.…read more

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These hazards can become disasters if the frequency of people affected and magnitude of the
event are high enough that a country's government cannot support itself and needs foreign
support.
· Hydro-meteorological hazards seem to be becoming more frequent.
· It is thought that the increase in hydro-meteorological hazards is due to the increasing
effects of Global Warming - which is thought to be mainly due human activity.…read more

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LDCs.
Impact of human activities: e.g deforestation in upper
catchments or urbanisation both increase flood risk ­
Destruction of mangroves increases coastal flooding risk in
tropical latitudes.
Death tolls are falling due to improvements in
infrastructure, medical care etc...…read more

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Survey) 4. Implement an early warning system
5. More coverage (interviews) = more aid
Problems they may face?
1. Poor local technology
2. Lack of data
3. Language barrier
Media Roles brought:
1. Move coverage = donations
2. Help find missing people
3. Filing reports, providing data
Problems they may face?
1. Equipment stolen ­ desperation
2. Language barrier
3. Access
Health Teams Roles brought:
1. Medical assistance ­ force
2. Save lives, treat injured
3. Quick response
4.…read more

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Ampara, SE Sri Lanka:
· Deaths = 10,436
· Missing: 0
· Injured: 120
Most deaths during and immediately after.
56% victims = children
15% of deaths = 50+ years old
Ampara = Middle of SL, HIGHLANDS
Most vulnerable people suffered the worst.
Rapid coastal urbanisation due to FLAT LAND, TOURISM and SUBSITENCE FISHING.
GENDER:
· Double the amount of women died then men
· Women/children were most likely to be indoors ­ 13.…read more

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Low Frequency High Magnitude Events
· They are found along Convergent and Transform margins
· Convergent margins = the force of compression causes stresses to build up ­ pressure
released the ground surface shakes (EPICENTRE)
Philippines = Ocean and Continental plates collide (Convergent)
Himalayas = two Continental plates collied causing fold mountains to form (Convergent or Collision)
San Andreas Fault ­ plates slide past each other ­ Transform margin
Volcanoes
· Located on plate margins
· most explosive = convergent margins where Oceanic plates are…read more

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Can easily afford shelters and places for people to Technology is developing more now.
stay when evacuating.
Predictions better due to high amount of
technology and money spent on this.
Disasters: 1. The San Andreas Fault runs the length of 2) Earthquakes
Earthquakes California ­ it's a conservative plate boundary ·The Philippine plate and the Eurasian plate
2. California has 2 or 3 earthquakes each year that can become locked together as one moves
are powerful enough to damage structures (5.5+ on under the other.…read more

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Impermeable clays around Santa Monica. from the mantle below
4. Building on steep slopes = further hazard ·Mount Pinatubo is a volcano that erupted in
increase. 1991. Many people were evacuated, buildings
5. 2003- Series of landslides kills collapsed, crops were destroyed and
16. Wildfires removed vegetation = unstable agricultural land was ruined by falling ash.
slopes. The worst rainfall for 20 years increased the
risk
Damage Los Angeles - San Fernando Valley, Northern LA Earthquake- Philippines
(example= 17th Jan 1994 July 1990
Earthquake) 6.…read more

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Mount Pinatubo when it erupted in
El Niño
· It is part of a cycle of approx. 7 years
· 1-2 years occur as El Niño years
· (1-2 years also occur as La Niña)
Main facts:
· Pressure systems and weather patterns REVERSE.
· Warmer waters in E. Pacific. (Temps rise by up to 8°C)
· Low pressure forms over the area = westerly winds
· Warm, moist air rises = HEAVY RAINFALL over E.Pacific.
· Air circulates W. in upper atmos.…read more

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