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· Created by wind blowing over the surface of the sea, creating friction, the
energy is transferred which creates the waves
· Strong wind -> greater friction -> powerful and higher waves
The effect that a wave has depends on its height;
· The wave height is affected by the wind speed and fetch
· A high wind speed and long fetch= high waves
Waves move across open ocean in a circular motion as an ocean swell;
· As waves approach the shore they break, the friction with the sea bed slows
the wave and makes their motion more elliptical, the crest of the wave rises
up and then collapses
· Waves coming onto the beach= swash
· Waves going back to sea= backwash…read more

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Constructive waves
· Build up the beach
· Have a long wavelength
· Low frequency (6-8 p/m)
· Long and shallow= more elliptical profile
· Swash is absorbed due to the low levels of energy
· Sediment thrown up by the breaking waves accumulates
in ridges of `berms'
· Backwash has little power to move sediment back out to
sea…read more

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Destructive waves `plunging waves'
· High and steep
· More of a circular cross profile
· High frequency (10-14 waves p/m)
· Wavelengths are shorter
· Wave breaks at a considerable height, creating a large
amount of energy which cannot be easily absorbed by the
· Powerful waves run up the beach, the strong backwash allows
sediment to move back down the beach. And eventually to
sea…read more

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Classifying coastal environments
Storm wave environments:
· Frequent low pressure systems
· Strong onshore winds generate powerful waves
· E.g. north-west Europe
Swell wave environments:
· Less extreme pattern of wind and waves
· Considerable swell built over a long fetch
· E.g. west Africa
Tropical cyclones:
· Extreme winds which allow large waves to develop and push
massive amounts of water towards coastal areas
· E.g. south-east Asia, and the Caribbean…read more

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· A tide is the alternative rise and fall of the level of the sea
· Tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon
and sun
· Tides affect the position at which waves break on the
· The area of land between high and low tide is where
landforms are created and destroyed
· Tide levels are predictable, and can be published
· High tides + strong winds, large waves and heavy
rainfall= catastrophic events…read more

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Luca Reidy

Hi, are you doing one for population and health?? Your resources are really helping me!!!!!

Luca Reidy

Sorry....... and maybe food??? Thanks

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