Health Revision Notes

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Health revision notes
Key words
Attack rate: the number of cases of a disease diagnosed in an area, divided by the population,
over the period of the epidemic.
Case-mortality rate: the number of people dying from a disease divided by the number of those
diagnosed as having the disease.
Morbidity: illness and the reporting of disease.
Mortality: the death of people, measured by death rate, infant mortality, case mortality and
attack rate.
Crude death rate: the number of deaths per 1000 people per year.
Pandemic: disease prevalent in a whole country, continent or world.
Epidemic: disease affecting many people at the same time but not widespread.
Global patterns of health, morbidity and mortality: health in world affairs
Death rates Expected to have low ones Expected to have high ones
Higher average ages thus Considerably low due to young
higher death rates populations e.g. Mexico has
many people below the age of
15 and a low infant mortality
Africa has a high number of
Leading causes of death Heart and circulatory Heart and circulatory diseases
diseases (heart attacks and (heart attacks and strokes)
strokes) Lung diseases (pneumonia and
Lung diseases (pneumonia bronchitis)
and bronchitis) Responsible for 1/3 deaths each
Responsible for 1/3 deaths year
each year Causes differ to MEDCS
Causes differ to LEDCS
Other major causes of Four major types of cancer: Perinatal conditions: deaths of
death lung, colon and rectum, deaths of babies during the first
breast and stomach week of life. They are the major
Alzheimer's disease cause of death among children
Type two diabetes (linked to under five, accounting for more
obesity and poor diet and than one in five deaths. Most
tends to start in people over are the result of poor maternal
40, peaking in number at health and nutrition,
between 50 and 60 years of inadequate care during
age) pregnancy and delivery, lack of
Occur in MEDCs because: essential care for the newborn
Associated with older people, baby, infections, birth injury etc
so common in MEDCs due to Infectious diseases e.g.
high life expectancies diarrhoea, malaria, HIV/AIDs,
Linked to higher standards of TB. The distribution of these
living and unhealthy diets varies; 2004 estimated 60% of
found in affluent countries all 40 million worldwide cases
of HIV/AIDs were in

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Saharan Africa whereas TB
is more evenly spread.…read more

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Clean water and sanitation Clean water/sanitation taken Each year 1.8 million people die
for granted from diarrhoeal diseases
including cholera; 88% of these
are linked to unsafe water
supply/inadequate hygiene
(improved drinking water
supply and better sanitation
reduce this by one third)
Each year 1.…read more

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There are variations between groups:
- well educated professionals have higher life expectancies than manual workers
- children born in Leeds' poorest areas can die 12 years earlier than those who live in more
affluent areas
- significant differences between different racial and ethnic groups
HIV/AIDS has lowered life expectancy, it is estimated the life expectancy would have been
62 compared to 47, without the disease in sub Saharan Africa
Factors affecting life expectancy:
- nutrition
- living standards
- level of healthcare provision
Explaining…read more

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This would suggest that GDP contributes towards HIV which can be explained through
education, access to contraception, gender equality and healthcare provision (which
affects blood transfusions and mother to child transmissions)
Health impacts:
Life expectancy has fallen 5 years since early 1990s in sub Saharan Africa
Patients with HIV/AIDS will soon account for 60 ­ 70% of hospital expenditure in South
AIDS is a prolonged disease so patients use the health service for many years
In sub Saharan Africa, HIV patients cover 1/5…read more

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Denmark, £1.5m has been funded to conduct human trials for a cure that has been
found to work in lab tests
2.…read more



your dadtalk uk/eu. this revision guide is amazing m9

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