Edexcel AS Geography Unit 1 - Global Challenges (6GE01), Topic 1 (World at Risk), Sections 1 (Global Hazards) and 2 (Global Hazard Trends) Revision

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Global Hazards Introduction
· A hazard is a perceived natural event which has the potential
to threaten both life and property
· Natural Hazards are caused by natural processes, e.g. A lava
flow from a volcanic eruption
· Natural hazards can be divided into 2 types:
1) Hydro-meteorological hazards caused by climatic processes
­ droughts, floods, tropical cyclones, storms
2) Geophysical hazards caused by tectonic/geological
processes ­ Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and landslides…read more

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Key Terms
· A tropical cyclone is a hazard. However, when it hits land and
seriously affects people and property, it's a disaster (e.g.
Hurricane Katrina ­ 2005)
· The following are 3 key terms you need to know:
· Disaster: The realisation and actual impacts of a hazard (e.g.
The resulting deaths, injuries, destruction and disruption)
· Risk: The probability of a hazard event occurring and creating
loss of lives and livelihoods
· Vulnerability: A high risk combined with an inability of
individuals and communities to cope…read more

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Disaster Risk Equation
Risk (R) = Hazards (H) x Vulnerability (V)
Capacity to cope (C)
· The risk of a hazard causing a disaster can be shown using the
disaster risk equation (above)
· The risk of disaster increases as:
1) The frequency or severity of hazards increase (e.g. Global warming
is increasing the frequency and severity of weather related hazards
[Floods, Droughts, Windstorms])
2) People's vulnerability increases (e.g. Unsustainable development on
poor land [building on floodplains], or destruction of coastal mangroves
decreasing coastal protection
3) People's capacity to cope is decreased (e.g. Poor and vulnerable
communities lacking the skills, tools and money to deal with climate
change…read more

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Comparing Vulnerability
· The disaster risk equation can be used to explain why similar
hazards can cause disasters of different degrees
· Similar sized earthquakes occurred in Kashmir, Pakistan
(2005) and Izmit, Turkey (1999)
· Although the hazard was similar (both were earthquakes), the
disasters they caused were different ­ Kashmir suffered more
loss of life with over 75,000 deaths compared to around 18,000
in Izmit.
· The disaster risk equation can help to explain why:
­ The people of Kashmir had a lower capacity to cope ­ it's a remote,
mountainous location, which makes access difficult. Access was made
even worse by landslides that buried roads in the region.
­ The population of Kashmir is vulnerable ­ the people are poor and
buildings are often badly constructed. When some of these buildings
collapse after the earthquake, people were buried…read more

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Global Warming
· Global warming is arguably the greatest current global hazard
· Global warming describes the recent increase in average global
· It's a type of climate change (a significant change in the weather of a
region over a period of at least several decades)
· It also causes other types of climate change
· There's a scientific consensus that global warming is due to human
· Global warming is a context hazard ­ it's global in scale (Affects all
parts of the environment) and has the potential to trigger other hazards
or make them worse
· Global warming is also a chronic (long-term) hazard ­ it's a constant
threat and can't be solved quickly or easily
· Hazards such as global warming highlight issues of injustice ­ it isn't
necessarily the people causing the problem who are most affected
­ E.g. Richer countries often contribute most of the pollutants that are
thought to cause global warming, but poorer countries suffer more from…read more

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Mr A Gibson

Although the titular board is Edexcel this is suitable for all awarding bodies. Why? Lots of general and specific information in different formats (bullets, diagrams, table and text) relevant to the topic. This is a good resource to browse through and interesting to boot.

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