Gender Revision Notes - A01, A02/3 and IDA

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GRENADE ­ Gender bias, Reductionism, Ethical concerns, Nature/Nurture, Animal
studies, Determinism, Eurocenticism.
Gender ­
Cognitive Development Theory ­
A01 ­
Gender constancy theory
Cannot distinguish between appearance and reality.
McConaughy ­ Young children are shown a line drawing of a child where male genitals are visible
through a dress, children under 5 judged the doll to be female because of its external appearance.
Gender changes are the outcome of changes in a child's cognitive capabilities as they get older.
Stage 1 ­ Gender labelling:
2-3 ½ years ­ label themselves and others as boys and girls, but I based on outward appearances
only. Children change labels as appearances change.
Stage 2 ­ Gender stability:
3 ½ - 4 ½ years ­ Gender is consistent over time; boys grow to be men and girls women. They
do not understand that gender is constant across situations. Swayed by outward appearances.
McConaughy supports.
Stage 3 ­ Gender Constancy:
6 ­ Gender is constant across time and situations. They learn gender appropriate behaviour.
A02/3 ­
Bem ­ genital knowledge rather than constancy. ­ learned around the world of what gender is.
Thompson ­ labelling - 2 year olds were 80% correct in identifying their sex whereas 3 year olds
were 90% correct.
Individual differences.
Shows that children develop differently
Slaby and Frey ­ Stability ­ were you a boy or a girl when you were a baby? Did not recognise traits
were stable over time.
May be researcher bias
May have directed results.
Slaby and Frey ­ constancy ­ interest in same sex models.
Huston ­ CDT fails to incorporate the influence of social factors. Easier to get girls to dress up as
boys than boys to dress as girls.
Little mention of biological factors.
Durkin ­ Behaviour does not change ­ domestic duties are not shared.
Predicts no gender specific behaviour before children acquire gender constancy.

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Holistic ­ combines SLT and biological development factors.
Nature/Nurture ­ looks at both.
Deterministic ­ Very strict categories for development.
Eurocentricism ­ May be different in other cultures.
Gender Schema Theory ­
A01 ­
Martin and Halverson ­ seek information about one's own gender.
Process happens before gender constancy.
Basic gender identity is sufficient for a child to identify as a boy or girl.
Schemas - Martin and Halverson said that children have ideas of gender appropriate behaviour.…read more

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Biological explanations ­
Genes and Hormones ­
A01 ­
Females have XX chromosomes and males XY.
Usually a link between an individual's chromosomal sex and their external genitalia and internal
Prenatal development all individuals start out the same, a few weeks after conception both
embryos have feminine genitalia, but if it is a male, then testosterone develop male genitalia.
AIS ­ Some males did not have enough testosterone while developing and as a result they are
identified as female and raised as girls.…read more

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Gender bias ­ only looks into testosterone and its effects ­ Vreugdenhil ­ boys born to mothers
who were exposed to pesticides showed feminised play ­ oestrogen.
Reductionist ­ only looks into biological explanations ­ not social.
Ethical concerns ­ Research into CAH and AIS may cause concerns.
Nature ­ genes and hormones determine gender.
Animal studies ­ research cannot be generalised.
Eurocentric ­ genes and hormones are westernised.…read more

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Experimenter bias.
Methodological issues ­ many people may not look at ads.
Tend and Befriend ­
Ennis ­ natural experiment to test male-female differences in stress response. Took levels of
cortisol a week before exams and during exam. Men had higher cortisol, but females less. ­
respond differently.
Taylor ­ women, oxytocin levels increased with stress, which reduces anxiety.
The meat-sharing hypothesis ­ Hill and Kaplan ­ men use meat as a means of gaining access to
women.…read more

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What men and women seek is related to their social roles rather than reproductive value of
certain traits.
Hormonal differences ­
Eagly and Wood ­ hormonal differences may be because of social roles and psychological sex
A02/3 ­
Biosocial theory ­
Lack of evidence ­ Money and Ehrhardt has little support.
Sample bias ­ Evidence may not be relevant to understanding normal gender development.…read more

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Prenatal hormone levels may be affected by genetic conditions and this may lead to a mismatch
between hormones and genetic sex. AIS and CAH may result in an intersex condition where
external genitalia do not match genetic sex.
A02/3 ­
Psychological explanations:
Cole ­ 435 gender dysphoriacs ­ unrelated to trauma or pathological families.
Biological explanations:
Boys, who were exposed to pesticides prenatally, demonstrated feminised play.
Zhou ­ Hypothalamus ­ 6 male-to-female transsexuals and found a female region in brain.…read more

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Impact of instructions not reinforced by models means that tuition is weakened when what is
taught us contradicted ­ Hildebrandt.
Sources of social influences:
Strong ideas about how their little boys and girls should behave. They are reinforced differently.
Idle - Fathers usually react more negatively than mothers to their son's feminine toy play.
Block ­ boys are positively reinforced more for behaviours reflecting independence, while girls
are reinforced for dependence.…read more

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Lamb and Roopnarine ­ preschool children at play found that sex ­appropriate play is
No control groups for comparison ­ all children watch TV.
Pingree ­ stereotypes were reduced when children were shown a woman in non-traditional
May have been influenced by experimenter.
Williams ­ Canada TV introduced ­ stronger stereotypes in multi-tel.
Can't repeat ­ lacks reliability and validity.
Ethical concerns.…read more

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Reductionist ­ looks into social factors.
Ethical concerns ­ some studies were unethical ­ Mead, Williams and Best.
Nurture ­ social approach ignores biology.
Eurocentric ­ imposed etic ­ results lack validity.…read more


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