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GRENADE ­ Gender bias, Reductionism, Ethical concerns, Nature/Nurture, Animal
studies, Determinism, Eurocenticism.

Gender ­

Cognitive Development Theory ­

A01 ­

Gender constancy theory

Cannot distinguish between appearance and reality.
McConaughy ­ Young children are shown a line drawing of a child where male genitals are visible
through a dress,…

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Holistic ­ combines SLT and biological development factors.
Nature/Nurture ­ looks at both.
Deterministic ­ Very strict categories for development.
Eurocentricism ­ May be different in other cultures.

Gender Schema Theory ­

A01 ­

Martin and Halverson ­ seek information about one's own gender.
Process happens before gender…

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Biological explanations ­

Genes and Hormones ­

A01 ­

Females have XX chromosomes and males XY.
Usually a link between an individual's chromosomal sex and their external genitalia and internal
Prenatal development all individuals start out the same, a few weeks after conception both
embryos have feminine genitalia,…

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Gender bias ­ only looks into testosterone and its effects ­ Vreugdenhil ­ boys born to mothers
who were exposed to pesticides showed feminised play ­ oestrogen.
Reductionist ­ only looks into biological explanations ­ not social.
Ethical concerns ­ Research into CAH and AIS may cause concerns.…

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Experimenter bias.
Methodological issues ­ many people may not look at ads.
Tend and Befriend ­
Ennis ­ natural experiment to test male-female differences in stress response. Took levels of
cortisol a week before exams and during exam. Men had higher cortisol, but females less. ­
respond differently.
Taylor ­…

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What men and women seek is related to their social roles rather than reproductive value of
certain traits.
Hormonal differences ­
Eagly and Wood ­ hormonal differences may be because of social roles and psychological sex

A02/3 ­

Biosocial theory ­
Lack of evidence ­ Money and Ehrhardt has…

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Prenatal hormone levels may be affected by genetic conditions and this may lead to a mismatch
between hormones and genetic sex. AIS and CAH may result in an intersex condition where
external genitalia do not match genetic sex.

A02/3 ­

Psychological explanations:
Cole ­ 435 gender dysphoriacs ­ unrelated to…

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Impact of instructions not reinforced by models means that tuition is weakened when what is
taught us contradicted ­ Hildebrandt.

Sources of social influences:
Strong ideas about how their little boys and girls should behave. They are reinforced differently.
Idle - Fathers usually react more negatively than mothers to…

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Lamb and Roopnarine ­ preschool children at play found that sex ­appropriate play is
No control groups for comparison ­ all children watch TV.
Pingree ­ stereotypes were reduced when children were shown a woman in non-traditional
May have been influenced by experimenter.
Williams ­ Canada TV…

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Reductionist ­ looks into social factors.
Ethical concerns ­ some studies were unethical ­ Mead, Williams and Best.
Nurture ­ social approach ignores biology.
Eurocentric ­ imposed etic ­ results lack validity.


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