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GRENADE ­ Gender, Reductionism, Ethics, Nature/Nurture, Animal studies,
Determinism, Eurocentricism


Social Learning Theory ­


SLT is defined as learning behaviour controlled by environmental influences.
Aggression is primarily learned.
We learn through direct experience or vicarious reinforcement.
Behaviour that is reinforced will be repeated and learned.
If aggression is…

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Can't generalise to adults.
Out- dated games ­ can't apply today.
Small sample size.
Lacks validity ­ incorrect way of measuring.
Alpha bias ­ sees no effect in boys.


Gender bias is evident ­ assumes that aggression doesn't affect everyone in the same way.
Reductionist ­ Over-simplifies theory and…

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Research fails to consider whether anonymity of the victim's aggression or of the aggressors
themselves leads to high levels of aggression.
Zimbardo criticised Le Bon's theory ­ there was more to deindividuation than just anonymity of a
Reduced responsibility, Increased arousal, Sensory overload, Altered consciousness
Zimbardo ­ female ps…

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Irwin and Cressey ­ categories of prison sub-culture:
Criminal/thief subculture ­ norms and values inherent within the career criminal. A value such as
not betraying one another is adopted.
Convict subculture ­ seek positions of power influence and information within the prison
Conventional subculture ­ one ­ time offenders.…

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McCorkle ­ individual and collective acts of aggression in 371 US prisons ­ deprivation model was
not useful in prison violence. Prison aggression occurs as a result of poor management practices.
Haslam and Reicher ­ BBC prison study ­ behaviour understood through social identity theory.
Megargee ­ prisoners do not…

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Biological ­

Neural and Hormonal ­

A01 ­


Chemicals that enable impulses within the brain to be transmitted from one are of the brain to the
Reduces the aggression by inhibiting responses to emotional stimuli that might otherwise lead
to an aggressive response.
Low levels are associated…

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Animal studies ­ issues with generalisation to humans and ethical issues
Biologically determined ­ no free will
Gender bias ­ predominately males
Reductionism ­ doesn't take biology Into account

Hormonal mechanisms - Testosterone -


Dabbs ­ salivary testosterone in violent and non ­ violent criminals. High level =…

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Animal studies ­ cannot be generalised to humans.
Determinist - biology determines behaviour ­ no free will.
Eurocentric ­ results cannot be generalised to other cultures ­ imposed etic.


Cortisol ­

A01 ­

Dabbs ­ mediating effect on other aggression related hormones, because it increases anxiety.
High levels of…

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If a positive correlation is found between aggression in adopted children and biological parents, then
it must be genetic.
Hutchings and Mednick ­ 14,000 adoptions in Denmark found adopted boys with criminal
convictions had biologically aggressive parents.

The role of MAOA:
XYY is associated with aggression.
MAOA regulates the metabolism…

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A01 ­

Aggression is important in the function in terms of individual survival and procreation. Animals must
compete in order to increase their own fitness.
Lorenz - programmed for violence by basic nature. Emanates from an inherited fighting instinct that
human beings share with other species. One way of…


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