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Genetic Factors
Twin and Adoption Studies
Twin studies: monozygotic twins share all genes; dizygotic twins share max of 50%. If MZ twins have
a higher concordance rate than DZ twins in terms of aggressive behaviour strong genetic influence
Adoption studies: if +ve correlation found between adopted child's aggressive…

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Evolutionary Explanations of Human Aggression
Men may experience parental uncertainty, therefore they are at risk of cuckoldry (reproductive cost
that might be inflicted on a man as a result of his partner's infidelity
o Consequence of cuckoldry ­ the man might unwittingly invest his resources in offspring…

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Neural and Hormonal Mechanisms
Neural Mechanisms
A01 ­ Serotonin
Low levels = high aggression. Serotonin reduces aggression by inhibiting responses to emotional
stimuli - some drugs thought to alter serotonin levels increase aggressive behaviour
Mann ­ gave 35 healthy subjects dexfenfluramine (depletes serotonin) used questionnaires to
assess hostility +…

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Institutional Aggression
Institutional Aggression
`collective violence' e.g. prisons (within institutions), religious groups (between different collectives)
Different forms. From physical abuse of individuals during initiation `rituals' to acts designed to
destroy whole groups (genocide)
Institutional Aggression within Groups
A01 ­ Importation model ­ Irwin and Cressey
Claims that inmates who…

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Evolutionary Explanations of Group Display
Sports & Xenophobia
A01: Xenophobia ­ a fear and hatred of strangers or foreigners
Wilson ­ xenophobia has been seen in virtually every group of animals displaying higher forms of
social organisation natural selection favours genes in humans to be altruistic to members of…

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are responsible for group displays of aggression social identity theory states that when identifying
with groups, individual's self-esteem increases leads to hostility to out group

Social Psychological Theories of Aggression
Social Learning Theory
Developed from learning theory by behaviourists behaviours learnt through observation of
Models can be…

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Support: Zimbardo ­ people who were deindividuated (KKK-like outfits of lab coats+hoods) gave
more electric shocks (measure of aggression) than those who were not
o Lacks ecological validity: unlikely to deliver shocks in a group situation as sign of
o Demand characteristics: Johnson and Downing ­ nurses/KKK…




This is really helpful, thank you so much! :)

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