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Aggression




Genetic Factors
Twin and Adoption Studies
A01
Twin studies: monozygotic twins share all genes; dizygotic twins share max of 50%. If MZ twins have
a higher concordance rate than DZ twins in terms of aggressive behaviour strong genetic influence
Adoption studies: if +ve correlation found between adopted child's aggressive…

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Aggression




Evolutionary Explanations of Human Aggression
Jealousy
A01
Men may experience parental uncertainty, therefore they are at risk of cuckoldry (reproductive cost
that might be inflicted on a man as a result of his partner's infidelity
o Consequence of cuckoldry ­ the man might unwittingly invest his resources in offspring…

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Aggression




Neural and Hormonal Mechanisms
Neural Mechanisms
A01 ­ Serotonin
Low levels = high aggression. Serotonin reduces aggression by inhibiting responses to emotional
stimuli - some drugs thought to alter serotonin levels increase aggressive behaviour
Mann ­ gave 35 healthy subjects dexfenfluramine (depletes serotonin) used questionnaires to
assess hostility +…

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Aggression




Institutional Aggression
Institutional Aggression
`collective violence' e.g. prisons (within institutions), religious groups (between different collectives)
Different forms. From physical abuse of individuals during initiation `rituals' to acts designed to
destroy whole groups (genocide)
Institutional Aggression within Groups
A01 ­ Importation model ­ Irwin and Cressey
Claims that inmates who…

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Aggression




Evolutionary Explanations of Group Display
Sports & Xenophobia
A01: Xenophobia ­ a fear and hatred of strangers or foreigners
Wilson ­ xenophobia has been seen in virtually every group of animals displaying higher forms of
social organisation natural selection favours genes in humans to be altruistic to members of…

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Aggression




are responsible for group displays of aggression social identity theory states that when identifying
with groups, individual's self-esteem increases leads to hostility to out group

Social Psychological Theories of Aggression
Social Learning Theory
A01
Developed from learning theory by behaviourists behaviours learnt through observation of
models
Models can be…

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Aggression




Support: Zimbardo ­ people who were deindividuated (KKK-like outfits of lab coats+hoods) gave
more electric shocks (measure of aggression) than those who were not
A03
o Lacks ecological validity: unlikely to deliver shocks in a group situation as sign of
aggression
o Demand characteristics: Johnson and Downing ­ nurses/KKK…

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xKush

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This is really helpful, thank you so much! :)

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