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Case Studies - A Watery World
Walkers Crisps - Leicester
They have reduced water usage by 50%, which has saved 700m litres of water per year. This was done by
installing 30 water meters at production plants to monitor water usage. They recycled water, e.g. from the
starch recovery programme. And they re-educated staff about the use of water and awarded the best team
who saved the most water.
It has led to consumption dropping in both sites in Leicester. Bursom - from 17.67 litres to 9.24 litres; and
Leycroft - from 13.65 litres to 6.38 litres per kilogram of potatoes processed.
Cadbury - Birmingham
They have installed a wastewater treatment plant onsite which cost them £2m. This plant cleans water
used through the production process, which is then used for other processes, e.g. cooling towers. This has
resulted in demand for water being reduced by 15%, which is a saving of £10,000 per year and a water
usage decreasing by 17m litres per year.
Water Management Scheme - Three Gorges Dam
A hydroelectric dam along the Yangtze River in Sandouping, Hubei province, China. It is the largest
hydroelectric dam in the world, generating 85.6 billion kWh of energy which is equivalent to 18 nuclear
Navigable waterways will provide mass transit of raw materials along the river, which will allow massive
economic growth, as well as reduced transportation costs.
Flood control capacity of 22.15 billion m , which will protect 1.5m hectares of farmland and the lives and
property of 15m people.
84.6 billion kWh of energy is produced by the hydroelectric turbines which is equivalent to 18 nuclear
800,000 tourists visited the dam in 2007 to have a view from the highest point, which generated $15.6m.
This also creates many jobs as tourist sites are built.
Around 1.4m people have had to leave their towns due to the rising waters. Gaoyang was the last town to
be evacuated in July 2008 as the dam reached its final height of 175m above the sea.
There has been a sharp increase in the number of landslides around the dam due to the huge weight of
water pushing on the dam. The reservoir has collapsed in 91 places and 36km has caved in. Landslides
have produced waves as high as 50m. In July 2007 13 farmers were killed by a hillside collapsing; and in
July 2008 a landslide in Badong County in Hubei Province killed more than 30 people after burying a bus.
Less than 4,000 Siberian Crane remain, which is a type of bird. They habituated in the wetlands which
were destroyed by the construction of the dam. Also contributed to extinction of Yangtze River dolphin,
and populations of the Yangtze sturgeon will be negatively affected by the dam.
More than 1 billion tonnes of wastewater is released annually into the river which is causing the water
quality of the tributaries to decrease as the dammed river cannot disperse the pollutants effectively. This
has resulted in the incidence of algae blooms to rise steadily since 2006.
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River Conflict Scheme between 7 U.S. States - Yuma Valley, Arizona & Las Vegas, Nevada
The desert was transformed into farmland because dams were built to store water from the Colorado
River and each country was given a certain amount which they stored in reservoirs.
In Yuma Valley, water is used for agriculture. Fruit and vegetables grown in Yuma Valley supplies 90% of
the fruits and vegetables consumed in the U.S. in winter months.…read more
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Revision Notes - A Watery World
11% of water used for domestic purposes, 20% is used for industrial and 69% for agricultural.…read more