case - study's GCSE geography edexcel B

  • Created by: CrazyWob
  • Created on: 06-05-17 18:18

kashmir (2005)

development type

  • developing


  • mountainous area (difficult to send aid)

numbers dead / injured

  • 75,000                                                                             

numbers homeless

  • 2.8 million

amount of property damage

  • 440 million dollars
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San Francisco (1989)

development type

  • developed


  • built-up area

numbers dead                                                                                          numbers injured

  • 63                                                                                                        · • 3757

numbers of homeless

  • up to 12,000

amount of property damage

  • 10 billion dollars
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Haiti (2010)

development type     magnitude     dead     injured     homes damaged     offices damaged

  • developing           7.0M      • 316,000  • 300,000      • 250,000                • 30,000
  • roads blocked by rubble
  • people trapped under the rubble
  • sleeping in streets in fear of more earthquake
  • Mortaries unable to cope
  • The phone / power lines down
  • shortage of clean water
  • 350,000 still living in tents
  • 80% rubble cleared
  • only 18% required homes built
  • 111,000 of 125,000 planned shelters were built
  • not all promised aid money was sent properly
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Montserrat volcano (1995)

  • montserrat - a british island
  • volcano called chances peak on volcanic area called soufriere hill
  • dormant since the 17th century
  • large amounts of ash and lava sent out (pyroclastic flow)
  • capital "plymouth" left under the ash
  • people forced to leave the island
  • going to other nearby islands having economic knock on effect
  • 6500 out of 10,000
  • large socio-economic consequences
  • very little tourism is now present on the island (large tourism before)
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Laki (1783 - 1784)

  • Huge eruption released incredible amounts of gas and dust
  • poisonous gases released
  • lead to death of vegetation, animals and therefore starvation of population
  • over 25% of population
  • large gas cloud released
  • cooled climate as blocks incoming heat of sun
  • poor summers and agriculture
  • occured in a remote area where people could not escape easily
  • aid from other countries was not possible
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Eyjafjallajokull (2010)

  • volcanoe located under glacier 
  • Eyja = Island , fjalla = mountain , jokull = glacier
  • Ice melted by heat of eruption
  • causing trapped steam to built up under rock building up pressure...
  • ... causing explosion that released tiny fragment of magma and ash
  • huge disruption to air travel as pilots could not fly:
  • air routes closed for weeks in over 20 european countries
  • economic impact with people not able to get to work
  • tourism impact - many people were not able to go on holiday
  • or trapped at airports
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RAMSAR (started 1971)

  • named after a city in Iran
  • conservation of wetlands worldwide:
  • 2.05 million km²
  • 168 countries
  • protection by law
  • wetlands help to promote biodiversity and rare species
  • threatened by population growth and agriculturalization
  • drained for farmland
  • threatened by global warming
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National Parks (started 1951)

  • protection of area's of natural beauty across the UK
  • 22,000 km²
  • 15 parks (Brecon Beacons,Broads,Cairngorms,Dartmoor,Exmoor,Lake District)
  • authority controls each park
  • controlled development and building on area
  • threatened from industrialisation (mining , construction)
  • help to conserve environment along with volunteers
  • national parks help to preserve local wildlife and AONB:
  • large variety's of animals live there
  • greener places help to clean the air in the UK
  • many people use national parks for leisure activitys such as walking and cycling
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Lalo Loor Dry Forest Reserve

  • conservation of untouched rainforest
  • 500 acres
  • large numbers of rare plants and animals
  • a tourist attration for the country
  • sustainable tourism provides funds for conservation
  •  located in ecuador (developing country)                                                                    image of ecuador (
  • threatened by clearance of soya throughout ecuador
  • volunteers help to look after the land under reforestation schemes
  • private owner of land agreed on conservation deal
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The Sahel,South-West USA and Asia

  • an accelerated enhanced greenhouse effect has extremified the effects of warmer arid area's
  • in the sahel larger but less frequent rainstorms mean that land dry's and water run's off
  • long term weather cycles may last 3 or 5 years resulting in international crisis
  • very bad for agriculture which already struggle's in the area
  • one of the poorest and most deprived area's in the world
  • climate change makes area's generally dryer such as the south-west USA
  • most of the area depends on the colorado River as a water supply
  • though water taken from river has been restricted due to water shortages
  • strained due to population growth meaning more demand for drinking water and crops
  • Asian countries such as China,India and vietnam rely on glaciers heavily as a water resource
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Colorado River management scheme

  • main source of water for south-west USA
  • dams such as Hoover Dam and the Glen Canyon Dam
  • large production of electricity and water supply for rapidly growing cities such as Las Vegas
  • helps to promote economic growth
  • increased reliability of water sources, that is not seasonal
  • much of the water behind the dams is used for irrigation
  • although this causes huge losses of land
  • large environmental effects: sediment not going down river so affecting fish
  • depleted sandbanks where animals lay eggs
  • Depleted water source for mexico downstream
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The Three Gorges Dam

  • in china to support hugely growing population and economy
  • largest power station in terms of power output in the world
  • one of the largest dam projects in the world
  • though very expensive $22.5 billion dollars
  • renewable resource is eco-friendly - saving 31 million tonnes of coal each year
  • provides a more reliable source of water supply
  • provides irrigation from the lake behind the dam
  • increased navigability for ships needed for increased trade
  • large amounts of land lost - decreased agriculture - loss of communities and cultural sites
  • huge environmental impacts - sediment lost dowstream - animals affected - more flood risk
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Tuareg / Dogon people

  • the Tuareg people live a nomadic migratory lifestyle
  • on the Sahel's northern edge
  • small tribes consisting of 30 - 100 members
  • graze the land with camels , goats , cattle and chickens
  • renowned craftsmen for making cloth, jewellery and wooden masks
  • Dogon people of Mali
  • musical culture - music and dance used to honour the dead in "Dama" festival
  • sometimes is performed for the amusement of tourists
  • feels to some to be an exploitation of their culture
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Cold climate cultures

  • Khanty people;
    • nomadic reindeer herders
  • inuit cultures:
    • native alaskan tribes joined by modern settlers leading to cultural dilution
    • traditional clothing has now been replaced by man-made textiles:
      • used to use caribou skin skin coats, sealskin boots and down as lining
  • yup'ik in south-western alaska are known for their carved masks and story-telling culture
    • threatened by climate change - can no longer take their dog teams onto the ice
  • inupiat are known for their impressive collection of totem poles (the tlingit village)
    • though are also controversiall still allowed to kill bowhead wales as a communal ritual
  • polar bears are hugely important culturally and economicallly for the candian inuit
  • UNESCO has pledged to safeguard inuit cultures
  • iceland:
    • traditionally in iceland natives would bury sharks to drain them of their poisonous fluids
    • natives still practice this today feeling that it is part of their culture
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climate change - protocols

  • kyoto protocol (1997)
    • 5% reduction in emissions by 2012
  • Copenhagen Accord (2009)
    • 190 countries agree to limit global warming though not to take specific action
  • Cancun Agreements (2010)
    • agree to develop clean technology and cut emission though not to take specific action
  • Durban Agreement (2011)
    • legal emission cutting targets that don't come into force until 2020
  • Antarctic treaty (1961)
    • restricts commerical development in polar regions
  • Protocol environmental protection (1998)
    • extensified protection against any new activities in antarctica unless it has very low impacts
  • UN convention to combat desertification (since 1994)
    • 195 countries agree to co-operate to build "bottom-up" schemes against desertification
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  • likely to be largely affected by future enhanced climate change
  • rapidly growing population will cause further resource tension
  • rises in sea level:
  • physical reduction in land and loss of farmland means communities have to move
  • salt water can kill crops along the coastline
  • less reliable weather patterns and an increase in storms:
  • large storms have economic and social effects on poor housing
    • can cause increased river flooding
      • increased risk of water bourne disease
  • prolongued dry seasons hinder crop growth
    • LEDC cannot afford to build flood defences on the coastline
  • Warming of sea:
  • important shrimp farming becoming less reliable
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the UK and climate change

  • Sea-level rising:
  • risk of flooding and increased erosion in coastal area's (increased threat to london)
  • less predicatable weather patterns:
  • severe storms will become more common which can damage infrastructure
  • generally rising temperatures:
  • longer growing seasons which can effect local agriculture
  • more expense on air conditioning within homes
  • promote the growth of some more tropical diseases
  • increased tourism within the UK where some sea-side towns become hotter
    • though detrimental to ski slopes in scotland
  • changes in local animal species on land and in the oceans
    • effect on fishing industry
    • will either migrate away or lead to the reduction of populations
    • effects the migratory patterns of birds
  • climate effects in other countries may increase refugee's from other countries
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China - anti-natalist policy

  • due to china's rapid expasion the population had begun to grow rapidly leading to a series of famines
  • introduced the "one child" policy to ensure people only have a single child
  • positive reinforcement to have just one child
    • cash bonuses and better access to housing
    • longer maternity leave and better child care
  • negative reinforcement if you have more than one child:
    • pressure for abortion and forced sterilisation for couples with more than one child
  • persuasion to change lifestyle:
    • easier access to contraception
    • young people persuaded to delay marriage
  • However this has disturbed the ratio of populations in the future:
  • created an ageing population and so shortage of young labour
  • abortion has become gender selective so a decrease in woman
    • increased bride kidnapping and prostitution
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Singapore - pro-natalist policy

  • policy to reduce population growth in the 1960's was too successful leading to population decline and an ageing population
  • introduced a policy to "have three or more - if you can afford it":
  • positive reinforcement to have more children:
  • tax rebates
  • preferential access to schools and cheap nurseries 
  • spacious apartments
  • education:
  • counselling discourages abortions and sterilisation
  • influence immingration policy to encourage young graduates to immigrate into singapore
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Madeira River Project - top down project

  • multinational top-down project in a peripheral area as an attempt of rapid development
    • 4 dams - vast amounts of electricity make living more affordable and enable's development
  • 3 highways - transport links are hugely important for trade, work and communication
  • 2 forest reserves - helps to compensate with industrialisation to promote biodiversity
  • a navigation channel - increase trade to help to industrialise
  • created 20,000 jobs
  • allowed the expansion of agriculture around the Dams


  • though community's were displaced around the Dams and all infrastructure sites
  • large environmental effect to the amazon area containing huge diversity
  • environmental assessment not completed properly
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Peru's micro-hydro scheme

  • run by the practical action charity installing 50 micro-hydro stations
  • "run of the river" affordable hydro scheme:
    • water is let straight through the hydrogenerator meaning there is no reservoir created 
      • small "reservoir" rather called "pondage"
      • land is not flooded so less environmental loss as a dam
    • less energy storage
      • though not largely required for the small business operations of the small towns
  • placed within a poor area where economic growth is highly required:
    • 44% of the population live on less than 2 dollars a day on the eastern side
  • opportunity for massive and sustainable growth to the scheme:
    • provides electricity to 30,000 people
    • government plants to double the number of schemes within 10 years
  • there is a cost for the residents for the electricity that they use per KWH:
    • though many cannot afford as well as the £500 initial cost
  • promotes huge economic growth:
    • people are encouraged to stay preventing deprevation
    • electricity provides light which makes processes quicker and aids education
    • access to computer systems connects the villages to the outside world
    • refrigeration allows medicine to be stored properly
    • allows for the mechanisation of agriculture
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  • redevelopment of the city centre has promoted large growth since industrial decline
  • people attracted away from london and to birmingham
  • the new HS2 (high speed 2) railway will continue this growth
  • to redevelop housing people had to be moved away to the suburbs
  • do not want to move away from their community
  • being moved away from the investment and not benefiting from it
  • 5 comprehensive development areas (CDAs)
  • new flats and open space
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London Docklands

  • london has in general experienced rapid economic growth
    • due to the rise in the tertiary and quaternary sectors promoted by highly skilled workers
      • these are called "LIGHT" industries
  • london docklands had closed as london became not as industrial or such an economic power;
    • boat sizes increased with globalisation which were too large to go down the thames
    • between 1978 and 1983 12,000 people lost there jobs giving room for deprevation
    • deindustrialisation had caused many environmental problems (abandoned)
  • The docklands provided an unusual opportunity for large investment so close to the capital:
    • attracted many external businesses with incentives and subsidies
    • became a financial centre for london attracting young entrepreneurs to the area
      • this is called gentrification
  • financial deregulation happened as the government became worried london was falling behind
  • Generally the living standards of the area has improved;
    • entertainment
      • business
    • up-market shopping centre's
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employment sectors


large involvement in the primary      growing tertiary and                 Huge amounts of people in

sector due to subsidence farming,    secondary sectors as the         the tertiary sectors as more

with poor working conditions. a        country continue's to develop.  services are provided for 

small secondary sector as there is    a large primary sector is          greater living standards.

not enough development to build     maintained in order to             Both the secondary and 

these factories. Not many services   continue to support the other   primary sector have become

due to low living standards.             industries.                              mechanised or imported

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sandwell, westmidlands

  • many manufacturing industries closed as UK no longer exports heavily
  • leads to out of control deprevation and poor quality life
  • over 23% of housing was unfit for living
  • the seventh most deprived area in the uk in 1997
  • large amounts of pollution meant that people were driven away from the area;
  • ground poisoned by mercury and cadmium killing the vegetation
  • air polluted from previous factories
  • very little green space remained (so brownfield development)

Recent improvements

  • the Black country development corporation and tipton challenge involved in development
  • urban reserves introduced to promote biodiversity
  • increase in industry for automotive parts
  • refurbished schools for better education and to promote industry with high skilled workers
  • 8500 new jobs , 45km of new roads, 300 new industrial units
  • emissions reduced by 27% and aims to reduce by 45% by 2018
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  • liverpool underwent economic decline like many of the industrial city's 1960's
  • this can be classed as "multiple deprivation" (which is self explanatory) 1980's
  • liverpool desperately needed to attract international business to prevent spiraling deprevation
  • labelled as the "European capital of culture in 2008" 
  • derelict warehousing was removed making way for new housing
  • gentrification
  • setting up media, publishing and design businesses
  • improvement of entertainment: music and comedy
  • more support of the local football clubs brings money back into the local economy
  • new housing has been built upon brownfield sites that avoid damage to the environment
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