Edexcel IGCSE History A7 Revision Notes

Some notes I made regarding the Edexcel IGCSE History exam.

 A7:A divided union: Depression and recovery in the USA, 1929–45

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America 1919-1941
Laissez Faire ­ Republican policy to leave the economy `to the market'
Tariffs ­ Custom duties imposed on imported goods
America experienced an economic boom in the 1920's, black Americans, the poor and some farmers
missed out on the boom
Eighteenth Amendment ­ Prohibition, introduced in 1918
The problems with prohibition was that it gave opportunities for organised crime
Twenty-first Amendment ­ Ended prohibition (1933)
Jim Crow Laws ­ Racist laws in southern states
Ku Klux Klan ­ Violent, racist, horrific treatment of black people
Herbert Hoover ­ Republican President in 1928
October 1929 ­ Wall street crash
60% of families living below the poverty line
Overproduction ­ Too many good being made
America found it difficult to export goods because of Retaliation tariffs
Hire purchase ­ How many consumer goods were purchased
When loans for goods couldn't be paid for, the goods were repossessed
Speculation ­ Investing in the stock market
Boom in the share prices, encouraged people to over invest
`One the margin' ­ Paying for shares from expected profits
20 million plus people owned shares in 1929

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Autumn 1929 ­ loss of confidence panic selling
Black Thursday ­ 13 million shares were sold (24th October 1929)
16 million shares sold 29th October 1929
Great depression followed the wall street crash
1933 was the worst year of the depression, unemployment 14 million and industrial production was
down 40%
Hoovers reaction to the crash, "too little, too late" he reacted like this because of `Rugged
Rugged Individualism ­ The belief that individuals need to be free from government help
25% of people unemployed…read more

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Civilian Conservation Corps, gave work to young men
Public Works Administration, spend $7 billion on lasting public improvements
Federal Emergency Relief Administration, $500 million on soup kitchens, clothing and schools
National Recovery Administration, jobs via building programmes
Tennessee Valley Authority, built 33 dams providing new jobs and industry
Republican opposition to the new deal said that the government shouldn't interfere
Business opposition to the new deal said it was giving trade unions too many rights
Individual states opposition to the new deal felt federal government…read more


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