Edexcel iGCSE History Revison: Conflict, Crisis & Change: China: 1934-89

A* Quality Notes on iGCSE Topic C6: Conflict, Crisis & Change: China, 1934-1989

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1930­76
B
Edexel iGCSE History
Topic C6: Conflict, Crisis & Change: China 1934-89
Revision notes produced by Ben Tavener
· The Triumph of Mao and the CCP , 1934-49
· Change under Mao, 1949-63
· The impact of the Cultural Revolution
· Change under Deng Xiaoping
· The Development of the Democracy Movement
B A poster from the 1950s.

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The Triumph of Mao and the CCP, 1934-49
The events and importance of the Long March (1934-35)
Main Events:
· The long March was an epic retreat by the Three Red armies of China between 1934 and 1936 which
took place during the Chinese Civil war.
· The Chinese communist forces were sorrounded and trapped by the nationalist Kuomintang led by
Chiang Kai-shek.
· The Kuomintang were better led and more numerous so communists fled west and north.…read more

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How did the war with Japan affect the CCP?
·! Because the Japanese controlled the coastal areas, the GMD government had to move to
Chonquing. This was important for the CCP as it allowed them to move to northern areas
and gain further support.
·! The CCP's policy of driving the Japanese out of China was popular and attracted further
support.
·! The bravery and determination of the CCP also increased support.…read more

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Overall, it was a success. A very high growth of 9% was achieved and most of the
production targets were met. Industry ­ especially heavy industry ­ significantly improved
over the 5 years between 1952 and 1957.
The Agrarian Reform Law:
· In 1950 Mao introduced the Agrarian Reform Law. He sent his Communist Party workers into each
village to enforce it.
· They shared out village land between the peasants.…read more

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The Great Leap Forward
What was the Great Leap Forward?
·! This was the name given to the Second Five-Year Plan, starting in 1957. It had two
main aims.
·! First, it was a plan to modernise China's industry and make it into a powerful
industrial country within fifteen years.
·! Second, it was meant to modernise Chinese agriculture so that enough food could be
grown to feed the population.…read more

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In 1962 Deng Ziaoping and Liu Shaoqui took over the running of the economy and
changed it a lot. E.g. they allowed peasants to have their private plots of land again so
that more food could be produced.
The Impact of the Cultural Revolution
Mao's Motives for the Cultural Revolution:
Mao said he started the Cultural Revolution because;
·! He thought that China was becoming too westernised (following the capitalist road) and
that CCP leaders were better off than ordinary people.…read more

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Change under Deng Xiaoping
Key Changes under Deng Xiaoping:
1. Education
· Deng reversed the educational reforms of the cultural revolution.
· This meant that exams were brought out of boycott and it was now essential to be a success at
achedemic subjects and to get into university.
· Key Schools were set up for the best students in China in order to provide them with the best
education possible.…read more

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The Treatment of the "Gang of Four"
Rise of Gang of Four
The Right suffered a real setback in 1976, when Zhou died and was succeeded by
Deng. He had been a popular leader and thousands of people went to Tienanmen
Square in Beijing to lay wreaths and put up posters in his memory. On 5 April 1976
visitors to the Square found that the wreaths had been removed and the posters
taken down.…read more

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Region 1 Region 2
100
75
50
25
2007
2008 0
2009
2010
The Development of the Democracy Movement
Causes of the Democracy Movement:
· Deng's economic reforms & Western methods led people to believe he was going to reform the political
system.
· Thousands of Students who studied abroad returned home to a foreign china.
· The CCP was full of corruption.
· Inflation and unemployment in China was rising at a worrying rate.…read more

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Deng Xiaoping tolerated the Democracy movement for a long period of time.
· However, after a while he decided to organise attacks on the protestors as a word of warning for the
movement.
· In 1986, Deng insisted that genuine democracy was not an option for China.
· He thought that people should not have a say in the politics of China and that they should be content
and let thier enlightened government lead them.…read more

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